Friday, 28 October 2011

Fasa sukar dalam pengajian MBA

  1. Setelah menamatkan semester pertama dan kedua dengan keputusan yang tinggi dan rendah, aku mula terasa bahang kesukaran di semester ketiga.
  2. Sukar untuk menyelesaikan asignment terutama berkenaan bidang yang cukup asing dengan aku.
  3. Kesukaran ini menyebabkan aku mengimbas kembali apa tujuan aku menyusahkan diri - sendiri. Bukankah sisa masa yang aku ada lepas waktu kerja digunakan untuk berehat, menonton tv dan berhibur seperti mereka di luar?
  4. Aku mencari - cari kata - kata yang akan menyegarkan semula semangat serta bara yang masih sisa. Seperti..
“Prepare for the best, plan for the worst and expect to be surprised.”

“I cannot fail”

“If i never try, I’ll never know.”

“Today is not a good day to give up”

“If you do not hope, you will not find what is beyond your hopes.”

“Life is either a daring adventure or nothing.”

“Every artist was first an amateur.”

Saturday, 22 October 2011



The fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, succinctly describing why it exists and what it does to achieve its Vision.

It is sometimes used to set out a "picture" of the organization in the future.

A mission statement provides details of what is done and answers the question:

"What do we do?" For example, the charity might provide "job training for the homeless and unemployed."



The way an organization or enterprise will look in the future.

Vision is a long-term view, sometimes describing how the organization would like the world to be in which it operates.

For example, a charity working with the poor might have a vision statement which reads

"A World without Poverty."

Why do no Strategic Planning

  1. Lack of knowledge or experience in strategic planning.
  2. Poor reward structures.
  3. Firefighting. No time for planning.
  4. Waste of time. 
  5. Too expensive.
  6. Laziness.
  7. Content with success.
  8. Fear of failure.
  9. Overconfidence.
  10. Prior bad experience.
  11. Self interest.
  12. Fear of the unknown.
  13. Honest difference of opinion.
  14. Suspicion.

Thursday, 20 October 2011

Tips Menyimpan

1. Mulakan sekarang jangan membuang masa.

2. Simpan walaupun sedikit pun, lama-lama jadi bukit. Simpan 30% daripada gaji bersih dan jadikan 6 bulan gaji. Kurangkan bebanan hutang. Jika banyak hutang, bayar dan jangan buat hutang baru jika hutang lama masih belum diselesaikan.

3. Buat auto-debit atau standing struction /  arahan tetap macam transfer terus ke Tabung Haji atau mana-mana bank lain.

4. Elakkan mentaliti untuk cepat kaya, i.e. melabur dalam pasaran saham yang mana kita tidak mempunyai kepakaran

5. Berbelanja dengan berhemah, i.e. beli apa yang diperlukan, macam handphone tu jangan selalu sangat tukar mengikut perkembangan teknologi.

6. Tentukan matlamat seperti simpanan untuk masa depan, beli rumah, pendidikan anak-2, kesihatan atau kecemasan.

7. Simpan tempat yang sukar untuk dikeluarkan i.e. pilih simpanan tanpa kad ATM.

8. Hidup mengikut kemampuan kita jangan ikut cara orang lain. Lihat orang yang lebih susah atau miskin berbanding melihat kekayaaan serta kemewahan orang lain.

9. Buat list sebelum ke pasar raya atau pusat membeli belah, beli apa yang ada dalam list sahaja.

10. Satu lagi, kadang-kadang beri penghargaan kepada diri kita atau kejayaan menyimpan supaya kita lebih bersemangat untuk berbelanja secara berhemah, cermat dan jimat.

Sunday, 16 October 2011

5 M's of Management

In the management literature 5 M's of management called as;
1. Money
2. Men
3. Material
4. Method
5. Machine
and nowadays Marketing is placed on the literature as the 6th M of management.

Read more:

Thursday, 13 October 2011

Biological Properties of Soil

Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil. These organisms include earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, fungi, bacteria and different arthropods. Soil biology plays a vital role in determining many soil characteristics yet, being a relatively new science, much remains unknown about soil biology and about how the nature of soil is affected.



Batu @ Rock

Rocks are generally classified by mineral and chemical composition, by the texture of the constituent particles and by the processes that formed them. These indicators separate rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. They are further classified according to particle size. The transformation of one rock type to another is described by the geological model called the rock cycle.
Sample of igneous gabbro

Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories: plutonic rock and volcanic. Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earth's crust (example granite), while volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta (examples pumice and basalt) .[1]
Sedimentary sandstone with iron oxide bands

Sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of either clastic sediments, organic matter, or chemical precipitates (evaporites), followed by compaction of the particulate matter and cementation during diagenesis. Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's surface. Mud rocks comprise 65% (mudstone, shale and siltstone); sandstones 20 to 25% and carbonate rocks 10 to 15% (limestone and dolostone).[1]
Metamorphic banded gneiss

Metamorphic rocks are formed by subjecting any rock type (including previously formed metamorphic rock) to different temperature and pressure conditions than those in which the original rock was formed. These temperatures and pressures are always higher than those at the Earth's surface and must be sufficiently high so as to change the original minerals into other mineral types or else into other forms of the same minerals (e.g. by recrystallisation).[1]

The three classes of rocks — the igneous, the sedimentary and the metamorphic — are subdivided into many groups. There are, however, no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks. By increase or decrease in the proportions of their constituent minerals they pass by every gradation into one another, the distinctive structures also of one kind of rock may often be traced gradually merging into those of another. Hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to selected points (more or less arbitrary) in a continuously graduated series.
Metamorphic banded gneiss
Sedimentary sandstone with iron oxide bands
Igneous gabbro
Rock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosi, Costa Rica
Balanced Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs


Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics.

Soil is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil differs from its parent rock due to interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere. It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states. Soil is commonly referred to as dirt.
Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain soil solution (liquid) and air (gas). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system. Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Little of the soil composition of planet Earth is older than the Tertiary and most no older than the Pleistocene. In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material.
A (soil), B (laterite, regolith), C (saprolite), C (bedrock)

are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty - red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock.

Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged is a process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land areas with laterites was or is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Wednesday, 12 October 2011


Luluhawa merupakan proses pemecahan dan penguraian batuan, tanah dan garam galiannya melalui tindakan semulajadi, kimia atau biologi.

Primary Minerals

The thickness of the earth's crust varies from 10 km under the ocean to 30 km under the continents.
Of the 88 naturally occuring elements on earth, only 8 make of most of the crust.

The earth's crust and soils are dominated by the silicic acid in combination with Na, Al, K, Ca , Fe and O ions.

In Table 4.1.1 the mean elemental content of soil and crustal rocks, and the soil enrichment factors are listed. Elements with high enrichment factors (EF) are C, N, S , and elements with low EF are Na, Mg , Al, P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn and Fe. The latter ones are important nutrients for plant growth.

Those elements are components of primary minerals, whereas primary minerals are components of parent rocks.

There are almost 3000 known minerals, but only 20 are common and just 10 minerals make up 90 % of the earth's crust.

Primary minerals are defined as minerals found in soil but not formed in soil. This definition is different from that of secondary minerals, which are defined as minerals fomed in soils.

Most of the primary minerals (primary silicates) have a crystalline structure, i.e., a structure in which ions are arranged in an orderly and repeated spatial pattern.

The fundamental unit in silicates is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron, which is composed of a central silicon ion surrounded by four closely-packed and equally-spaced oxygen ions.

The four positive charges of Si4+ are balanced by four negative charges from the four oxygen ions (O2-), one from each ion, thus each discrete tetrahedron has four negative charges. The central ion may be either Al3+, Fe2+, or Mg2+.

When in six-folded coordination, oxygens form an eight-sided octahedron. If larger Ca2+, Na+, or K+ ions are present, they occur at the center of clusters of tetrahedra, with each tetradedron supplying a part of all the oxygens needed for eight-fold or twelve fold coordination.

In this arrangement, the larger cations provide a center of positive charge that attracts and holds the clusters of tetrahedra together.

The cations occuring in this position, i.e., outside or between neighboring tetrahedra are called accessory cations. Si4+ and Al3+ ions are small and have a high charge (valence).

In general, the smaller the cation and the higher its valence the stronger the bond between it and the oxygen.

Stability in minerals requires their structure to be electrically neutral, i.e., the negative charge of the O2- in the structure must be equally balanced by the positive charge of the cations. Isomorphous substitution is the replacement of an ion with higher valence by some other kind of cation. This process is supported by a high concentration of substituting ions in a mineral-forming medium so as to increase their chance of entering the mineral structure in place. The pattern of substitution is generally the following: Al3+ substitutes for Si4+, and Fe2+ and Mg2+ substitutes for Al3+. An electrical imbalance occurs because the valence of the substituting ions is lower than that of the ions in replace. Neutralization of the excess negative charge is accomplished by the inclusion of accessory cations in the structure. In the primary silicates, Ca2+, Na+, K+ are the principal accessory cations that neutralize the negative charge resulting from ion substitution. The most important primary silicates are discussed in the following:

Framework Silicates: They are composed of tetrahedra linked trough their corners into a continuous 3D-structure. Quartz is a framework silicate composed entirely of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. The bulk density of quartz is 2.65 g/cm3 and quartz is highly resistant to mechanical abrasion and chemical weathering. Quartz is very common in most igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. In feldspars the Si4+ is partly replaced by Al3+, which results in a positive charge balanced by Na+, K+ or Ca2+ ions. In the alkali feldspars Na+ and K+, and in the plagioclase, Na+ and Ca2+ are the dominant accessory cations. Feldspars are the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust; they make up 50 - 60 % of the crustal rocks.

Wednesday, 5 October 2011

Agricultural Science 1

Agricultural Science 1
1. Bahagian-2 longitudinal bunga raya, jantina, jenis ovari dan plasenta bunga.

Debunga ialah serbuk halus hingga kasar yang mengandungi mikrogametofit benih tumbuhan, yang menghasilkan gamet jantan (sel sperma). Butiran debunga mempunyai lapisan keras yang melindngi sel sperma semasa proses pemindahan dari stamen ke pistil tumbuhan berbunga atau dari kon jantan ke kon betina tumbuhan konifer. Apabila debunga tiba di pistil serasi tumbuhan berbunga, ia bercambah dan menghasilkan tiub debunga yang memindahkan sperma kepada ovul ovari pokok tersebut. Butiran individu debunga cukup kecil untuk memerlukan pembesaran bagi melihat perincian.

 Anatomi daun
 Anatomi batang

Anatomi akar

 Anatomi akar

2. Benih jagung, jenis benih,jenis percambahan.
3. Buah ; definition, kalsifikasi, jenis asas, perbezaan buah sebenar dan palsu.
4. Penyebaran buah, agen, contoh dan terangkan.
5. Anatomi sel tumbuhan, bahagian-2, fungsi dinding sel dan namakan setiap lapisan dinding sel.
6. Chloplast
7. Testa
8. Capitulum of sunflower
9. Unisexual or imperfect flowers
10. Placentation
Lalat marmalad hinggap pada Cistus incanus, muka dan kakinya diselaputi debunga

ISP, Mac 2003.

Malas Bekerja ; Prof Ungku Aziz

  1. Rajin bekerja, rajin bercakap = Bagus sekali
  2. Rajin bekerja, malas bercakap = Kena buli
  3. Malas bekerja, rajin bercakap = Wayang cina
  4. Malas bekerja, malas bercakap = Tak guna
  5. Malas bekerja, banyak mengadu = Nyanyuk
  6. Malas bekerja, selalu ponteng = Baik berhenti
  7. Malas bekerja, suka menyibuk = Baik mati

Monday, 3 October 2011

Apa ertinya senarai orang terkaya ini pada pandangan anda?

Senarai 40 orang terkaya di Malaysia 2011 menurut Malaysian Business:

1. Robert Kuok RM 50.04 billion, 87 tahun, Kerry Group/ Kuok Group

2. Ananda Krishnan RM 45.78 billion, 73 tahun, Usaha Tegas

3. Teh Hong Piow RM 12.77 billion, 81 tahun, Public Bank

4. Lee Shin Cheng RM 12.74 billion, 72 tahun, IOI Group

5. Lim Kok Thay RM 10.89 billion, 59 tahun, Genting Group

6. Quek Leng Chan RM 10.75 billion, 70 tahun, Hong Leong Group

7. Syed Mokhtar AlBukhary RM 8.84 billion, 59 tahun, Yayasan AlBukhary

8. Lee Kim Hua RM 7.43 billion, 82 tahun, Genting Group

9. Tiong Hiew King RM 4.77 billion, 75 tahun, Rimbunan Hijau

10.Ong Bee Seng RM 3.98 billion, Hotel Properties Ltd

11.Azman Hashim RM 3.93 billion, 71 tahun, Amcorp

12.Vincent Tan RM 2.43 billion, 59 tahun, Berjaya Group

13.Lee Yeow Chor RM 1.998 billion, 45 tahun, IOI Group

14.Lee Yeow Seng RM 1.962 billion, 33 tahun, IOI Group

15.Lee Oi Hian RM 1.859 billion, 61 tahun, Batu Kawan

16.Lee Hau Hian RM 1.855 billion, 58 tahun, Batu Kawan

17.Yeoh Tiong Lay RM 1.811 billion, 81 tahun, YTL Group

18.Lau Cho Kun RM 1.775 billion, 75 tahun, Hap Seng Consolidated

19.Mokhzani Mahathir RM 1.665 billion, 49 tahun, Kencana Petroleum

20.Jeffrey Cheah Fook Ling RM 1.536 billion, 65 tahun, Sunway Group

21.Dr.Lim Wee Chai RM 1.244 billion, 53 tahun, Top Glove Corp

22.Francis Yeoh Sock Ping RM 1.229 billion, 57 tahun, YTL Group

23.Yeoh Seok Hong RM 1.129 billion, 52 tahun, YTL Group

24.Yeoh Seok Kian RM 1.098 billion, 54 tahun, YTL Group

25.Mark Yeoh Seok Kah RM 1.096 billion, 46 tahun, YTL Group

26.Michael Yeoh Sock Siong RM 1.092 billion, 51 tahun, YTL Group

27.Tony Fernandes RM 1.092 billion, 46 tahun, AirAsia

28.Kamarudin Meranun RM 0.856 billion, 49 tahun, AirAsia

29.Chong Chook Yew RM 0.813 billion, 88 tahun, Selangor Properties

30.Shahril Shamsuddin RM 0.804 billion, 50 tahun, Sapura Group

31.Shahriman Shamsuddin RM 0.791 billion, 42 tahun, Sapura Group

32.Liew Kee Sin RM 0.786 billion, 52 tahun, SP Setia

33.Yaw Teck Seng RM 0.699 billion, 73 tahun, Samling Group

34.Ong Leong Huat RM 0.621 billion, 67 tahun, OSK Holdings

35. Leong Hoy Kum RM 0.618 billion, 54 tahun, Mah Sing Group

36.Lee Swee Eng RM 0.570 billion, 56 tahun, KNM Group

37.Raja Eleena Raja Azlan Shah RM 0.568 billion, 50 tahun, Gamuda

38.Tan Heng Chew RM 0.557 billion, 65 tahun, Tan Chong Motors Holding

39.Stanley Thai Kim Sim RM 0.539 billion, 51 tahun, Supermax Corp

40.Tony Tiah Thee Kian RM 0.524 billion, 64 tahun, TA Enterprise

Saturday, 1 October 2011

Electrical Shock And Explosion In Transformer Room


The purpose of this safety alert issued is:
  • To inform people about the danger of arc flashover.
  • Provide guidance on how to do maintenance work on high power electrical substation.

An accident had occurred in August 2010, which involves arc flashover in a transformer room in Petaling Jaya.4 workers were severely injured while one of them suffered burns over 50% of the body and receiving treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
The accidents occur when a worker was loosening the power supply wire to the Circuit Breaker when accidently a part of victim body (head) touching or entering the clearance space of 11KVA Power System. As a result, short circuit and flashover occurred which resulted in explosion that injured the workers.
Forensic investigations find out that the working space was not suitable for such risky and dangerous job. For example: involving High Voltage Current.The divider that separate between electrical powered section and repaired section were missing. This can cause any part of your body to be exposed in danger of being electrocuted if the work is not done carefully.
Photo : Circuit Breaker System involved in accident
Recommended Control Measure
  1. Hazards of working in high current area should be indentified and risk assessments should be conducted.
  2. Appropriate safety measure and safety control should be done before maintenance work can be done.
  3. All electrical current in the working area should be switched off and isolated before maintenance work could be done.
  4. Only trained and competent workers are allowed to carry out maintenance work in high current operation.

Explosion of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in a Supermarket


Two workers were killed and nine injured on December 2009 when an explosion occurred inside a new shopping complex somewhere in Malacca. During the accident, the workers were making final preparations for the official opening of the complex. The LPG was channeled from the bulk storage tanks through a gas piping network and controlled by a shut-off valve at each of the shop-lot- which is used as a food and beverages outlet. Forensic engineering investigation found out that the explosion happened when a shut-off valve in one of the shop-lots was inadvertently left opened.

Photo 1: Gas supply from two LPG tanks

Photo 2: Damages caused by blast effect in the supermarket
The LPG leakage was detected and discovered by the one of the workers working near the shop-lot. However no was taken to evacuate the building and the shut-off valve inside the shop-lot cannot be turned off because the door was shuttered and locked. The LPG which had escaped and accumulated in the shop–lot can be easily ignited by any sparks from the on-going work outside the shop.
The combination of accumulated LPG and spark caused a confined vapor cloud explosion [VCE] resulting in building walls cracked and damaged, window glasses shattered and ceilings collapsed. Death and injuries were due to flying debris from the explosion acting like shrapnels.
Methods Of Improvement
  1. A comprehensive LPG safe system of work need to be established. On top of that the management must ensure that the system is implemented and followed through by anyone who works with LPG.
  2. Thorough inspection on the LPG pipings and fittings need to be done before the commissioning process to ensure that all shut-off valves in the shop-lots were properly turned off.
  3. The gas piping contractor shall ensure that the end pipes were closed with ‘end caps’ to prevent any leakage of gas even though the shut-off valves were closed.
  4. The contractor should be briefed about the dangers of LPG and the safety evacuation measures to be taken in the event of any leakage.
  5. To ensure good ventilation in the building, especially for enclosed and confined places where LPG could accumulate if a leakage occur.
  6. The location of the LPG main emergency shut-off valve shall be easily and readily accessible.
  1. Examples of Chemical Data Sheet (CSDS) for Liquefied Natural Gas (LPG) from Gas Malaysia can be read at

Bulging of boiler’s furnace shell at a Hotel, Bandar Baru Bangi .


The purpose of this safety alert is to raise awareness among public, competent personnel, and workers who are directly or indirectly involved with the use, operation and maintenance of steam boiler - regarding the accident involving a steam boiler which is used by a hotel around Bandar Baru Bangi. The root causes of this accident can be possibly due to the combination of one or more of these factors: low water, mis-alignment of furnace nozzle, the formation of scales on the furnace wall on the water side and operation which does not comply to DOSH’s safety requirements.

It is important for employer or safety and health officer to make good observation regarding the responsibilities of the competent person who is in charge for operating the steam boiler to avoid any bad occurrences.

The boilerman should ensure the safe use and operation of the steam boiler at all times during his charge in order to prevent the accident like this from occurring.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 1: The bulging defect on the boiler furnace [looking from the fire side]

Preventive measures

1.The accident like this could happen if the feed-water is not properly treated and this may cause formation of scales on the water side. So it is important, for person in charge of the steam boiler to follow any instructions issued by the employer or any firm that undertakes the feed-water treatment.

2.Unfortunate event like this, is normally due to the localised heating phenomenom, where the heat transfer from the furnace shell to the water side is concentrated only in certain area of the furnace shell. The possible reasons for this phenomenom:

i.there is no medium that can absorb the heat transfer from furnace shell (especially during the low water level condition;

ii.the formation of layer of scales on the waterside which blocks direct heat transer from furnace to water side and causes localised heating; and

iii.mis-aligntment at the nozzle burner which can cause the hot flue gas to converge and concentrate only at certain point or area of the furnace shell.

Therefore, it is important uphold on safe operating procedure, conduct regular monitoring and to undertake preventive maintenance on steam boiler.

3.The boilerman who is in charge for the operation of the steam boiler should inspect the boiler safety devices like water gauges, mobrey controllers, blowdown valve, burner cut-off, safety valves, feedwater pump, and pressure cut-off switch during the operation of steam boiler and report to their top management of any problem arising.

Figure 1: Low water problem can cause overheating and bulging defect on the furnace shell

Figure 2: Mis-alignment of burner attachment can cause localised overheating

Figure 3: Formation of layer of scales on the furnace wall at the water side can cause overheating and bulging defect on the furnace shell.

Letupan dan Kebakaran di Kilang Mengekstrak Minyak Sawit Daripada Tanah Liat Peluntur


Safety alert ini dikeluarkan lanjutan daripada kejadian kebakaran dan letupan melibatkan penggunaan bahan kimia yang mudah terbakar-n-heksane, pada bulan Februari 2011 yang lalu.Kejadian ini berlaku di sebuah kilang di Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Kilang ini mengekstrak minyak kelapa sawit daripada tanah liat peluntur yang menggunakan bahan kimia n-heksane sebagai bahan pelarut.
Seorang pekerja telah terbunuh, tiga orang pekerja cedera parah dan enam yang lain mengalami cedera ringan akibat daripada letupan dan kebakaran tersebut. Kebakaran di kilang ini juga menyebabkan kerosakan yang besar pada bahagian pemprosesan, dan struktur bangunan yang bersebelahan.
Hasil penyiasatan awal mendapati punca letupan dan kebakaran itu adalah disebabkan oleh limpahan bahan kimia n-heksane daripada kawasan pemprosesan pengekstrakan dan juga limpahan larutan campuran tanah liat peluntur dan n-heksane. Limpahan n-heksane di lantai seterusnya mengalir ke longkang dalam kawasan kilang.Limpahan bahan ini yang berkumpul dan menjadi satu kuantiti yang banyak hanya menunggu sumber percikan api atau haba panas untuk meletuskan satu letupan dan kebakaran.
bkf03 bkf03
Gambar: Kilang semasa kebakaran dan selepas kebakaran
Cadangan Langkah-Langkah Kawalan Keselamatan Untuk Mengelakkan Berlakunya Letupan Dan Kebakaran Untuk Proses Yang melibatkan n-Heksane
Untuk mengelakkan berlakunya letupan dan kebakaran di kilang yang melibatkan penggunaan bahan kimia n-heksane sebagai bahan pelarut, langkah-langkan berikut adalah dicadangkan:
  • Loji pemerosesan ini hendaklah mematuhi kepada spesifikasi dan kehendak kawalan keselamatan proses[process safety control] misalnya yang merangkumi aspek rekabentuk loji pemerosesan dan pemasangan alat-alat kawalan keselamatan proses;pembinaan dan pemasangan loji;pengendalian oleh pekerja-pekerja yang terlatih; kawalan keatas process upset; penyelenggaraan dan kerja-kerja pembaikan;penyimpanan bahan kimia mudah terbakar dan pemeriksaan berkala ke atas loji dan pemasangan;
  • Kawalan terhadap kebocoran n-heksane pada loji – majikan hendaklah memastikan setiap kebocoran n-heksane perlulah dielakkan dengan menyediakan alat-alat kawalan keselamatan yang mustahak seperti automatic level control ,overflow tank dan sebagainya;
  • Kawalan terhadap sumber penyalaan dengan memastikan loji dan pemasangannya mematuhi kepada kehendak MS,IEC,NFPA untuk persekitaran kerja dimana melibatkan penggunaan bahan mudah terbakar.Sumber-sumber penyalaan ialah seperti pembebasan arus elektrostatik, geseran, tindak balas kimia, permukaan panas dan juga kerja-kerja panas (hot work) di tempat kerja hendaklah dikenal pasti dan dielakkan daripada wujud di kawasan tempat kerja;
  • Memasang alat pengesan kebocoran di kawasan loji pemerosesan;
  • Memastikan para pekerja diberikan latihan yang komprehensif dan mencukupi dan kompeten untuk pengendalian bahan kimia n-heksane; dan
  • Lantai-lantai kerja dan loji pemerosesan hendaklah sentiasa diselenggarakan dan dijagai bersih dan selamat daripada apa-apa limpahan bahan-bahan kimia yang mudah terbakar.
Rujukan Tambahan:
  1. Jabatan Keselamatan Dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Malaysia, Assessment Of The Health Risks Arising From The Use Of Hazardous Chemicals In Workplace
  2. Jabatan Keselamatan Dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Malaysia, Guidelines On The Control Of Chemicals Hazardous to Health
  3. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for n-Hexane