Thursday, 29 November 2012

Goat Pastures Considerations


June 28, 2012


goat browse

Considerations to Be Given to Goats for Pastures

Goats are very active foragers, able to cover a wide area in search of scarce plant materials. Their small mouth, narrow muzzle and split upper lips enable them to pick small leaves, flowers, fruits and other plant parts, thus choosing only the most nutritious available feed. As natural browsers, given the opportunity, goats will select over 60 percent of their daily diet from brush and woody perennials (multiflora rose, saplings, small deciduous trees, black locust, briars, brambles, sumac, privet, honeysuckle), and broadleaf plants (pigweed, dock, horseweed, plantain, lambsquarter) over herbaceous species such as fescue, bluegrass, orchardgrass, crabgrass or bermudagrass. The ability to utilize browse species, which often have thorns and an upright growth habit with small leaves tucked among woody stems, is a unique characteristic of the goat, compared to heavier, less agile ruminants.
goat browse

Goats have been observed to stand on their hind legs and stretch up to browse tree leaves or throw their bodies against saplings to bring the tops within reach. Goats are more likely than other domesticated ruminant animals to select plant parts containing tannins. Goats even sometimes climb into trees or shrubs to consume the desired forage. In spite of their grazing preferences, goats can be grazed on pasture alone. The feeding strategy of goats appears to be to select grasses when the protein content and digestibility are high, but to switch to browse when the latter overall nutritive value may be higher. This ability is best utilized under conditions where there is a broad range in the digestibility of the available feeds. It is is an advantage to an animal that is able to select highly digestible parts and reject those materials which are low in quality.

In a pasture, goats tend to graze from the top to the bottom of plants and do not like to graze near the soil surface. Therefore, goats will more uniformly graze a canopy than other ruminants will. This behavior results in even grazing and favors a first grazer-last grazer system. This system might consist of using a goat herd as the first group and cattle as the last group. It is most appropriate with lactating does or growing kids whose nutrient requirements are high.
Goats have been observed to:
  • select young grass over clover;
  • prefer browsing over grazing pastures, and eat more browse than other domestic ruminants;
  • eat a wider range of plant species than sheep or cattle;
  • prefer foraging on rough and steep land over flat, smooth land;
  • graze along fence lines before grazing the center of a pasture;
  • graze the top of pasture canopy fairly uniformly before grazing close to the soil level;
  • travel longer distances in search of preferred forage than other domestic ruminants.
Grazing time can be influenced by several factors, including the season of the year, the temperature and humidity, the topography of the land, the nature of the plant canopy, pasture availability and social interaction between animals. The season of the year, with changes in day length and intensity of sunlight, cause goats to graze in different patterns. At mean temperatures below 50 F, goats spend very little time grazing at night. At mean temperatures above 50 F, some grazing time will occur at night; and when mean temperatures exceed 77 F, one or more grazing periods will occur at night. During hot weather, frequent movement of goats during the day will increase intake. The topography and size of the pasture also will have an effect on grazing time, as will forage availability and ease of forage removal. Goats will not graze sites within the pasture where urination and defecation have taken place, and this can increase the time it takes to graze. Goats are generally sociable, so if one animal gets up to graze, others will follow.
Luginbuhl, J-M. 2006. Pastures for Meat Goats. In: Meat Goat Production Handbook, ed. T.A. Gipson, R.C. Merkel, K. Williams, and T. Sahlu, Langston University, ISBN 1-880667-04-5.
Ref
http://www.extension.org/pages/19409/goat-pastures-considerations

Grazing Vs Browsing

GRAZING

Grazing generally describes a type of feeding, in which a herbivore feeds on plants (such as grasses), and also on other multicellular autotrophs (such as algae). Grazing differs from true predation because the organism being eaten from is not generally killed, and it differs from parasitism as the two organisms do not live together, nor is the grazer necessarily so limited in what it can eat (see generalist and specialist species). 

Many small selective herbivores follow larger grazers, who skim off the highest, tough growth of plants, exposing tender shoots. For terrestrial animals, grazing is normally distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or forbs, and browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs.

Grazing is important in agriculture, in which domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products. The word graze derives from the Old English (OE) grasian, "graze", itself related to OE graes, "grass". Further information: River continuum concept#Grazers Water animals that feed for example on algae on stones are called grazers-scrapers. Grazers-scrapers feed also on microorganism and dead organic matter on various substrates.
GRAZING
Browsing is a type of herbivory in which an herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high growing, generally woody, plants such as shrubs.

This is contrasted with grazing, usually associated with animals feeding on grass or other low vegetation. An example of this dichotomy are goats (which are browsers) and sheep (which are grazers); these two closely related ruminants utilize dissimilar food sources. 

Browse 

BROWSING

The plant material eaten is known as browse and is naturally taken straight from the plant, though owners of livestock such as goats and deer may cut twigs or branches for feeding to the stock. In temperate regions, owners take browse before leaf fall, then dry and store it as a winter feed supplement. In time of drought, herdsmen may cut branches from beyond the reach of their stock, as forage at ground level. In the tropical regions, where population pressure leads owners to resort to this more often, there is a danger of permanent depletion of the supply. Animals in captivity may be fed browse as a replacement for their wild food sources; in the case of bears, the browse may consist of bunches of banana leaves, bamboo shoots, slender pine, spruce, fir and willow branches, straw and native grasses.

Ref
Wikipedia

Kudzu

Kudzu ( /ˈkʊdzuː/; Pueraria lobata, and possibly other species in the genus Pueraria; see taxonomy section below) is a plant in the genus Pueraria in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. 

It is a climbing, coiling, and trailing vine native to southern Japan and south east China. Its name comes from the Japanese name for the plant, Kuzu (クズ or 葛?). Where it occurs as an invasive species it is considered a noxious weed that climbs over trees or shrubs and grows so rapidly that it kills them by heavy shading. The plant is edible, but often sprayed with herbicides.

Vine

A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine (Vitis), but more generally it can refer to any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent, that is to say climbing, stems or runners. 

The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work. In the United Kingdom, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.

Personnel Assessment

Criteria ;

teamworking
communication
leadership
time management
listening
motivation and enthusiasm
data analysis
decision-making
influencing
creativity
integrity
initiative

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

rumput israel



Indigofera






Indigofera is a large genus of about 700 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Fabaceae. The species are mostly shrubs, though some are herbaceous, and a few can become small trees up to 5–6 m (16–20 ft) tall. 

Most are dry-season or winter deciduous. The leaves are pinnate with 5–31 leaflets and the terminal leaflet present. Leaf sizes vary from 3–25 cm (1.2–9.8 in). The flowers are small, produced on racemes 2–15 cm (0.79–5.9 in) long. Indigofera species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Turnip Moth.

Alaminos Salad Garden


Ref
http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/295527/salad-garden-goats#.ULTA8Ye-2uJ

MANILA, Philippines – Investing heavily in the Alaminos Salad Garden is one of the best business decisions that Alaminos Goat Farm (AGF) has made in their goat business in 2010, according to Rene Almeda who and his two sons run the modern goat farm in Laguna. He said that the idea began in 2008 when friends from the academe would say that although AGF has a good system in place, their operations were too high end – meaning, it is not within the reach of the ordinary goat raisers. At the same time, the high production cost can be attributed largely to the cost of feed concentrate.
The salad garden consists of 30 long plots planted to various forage crops from which fresh leaves are harvested every day for feeding the goats, especially the dairy animals.
The development of the Alaminos Salad Garden became the solution to address these concerns on costs and feasibility. The salad garden would hit two birds in one stone. It would address productivity and help AGF in its corporate social responsibility program by doing a project that the farmers can replicate.
In the beginning, developing the salad garden in Alaminos was done without urgency. At that the time, the main priority was goat raising while working on the fields was done in their free time.
In 2009, Almeda said they recorded an impressive performance in their dairy operation. “From 24,000 liters produced in 2008 we doubled production to 48,000 liters in 2009. It also established that the 305-day lactation period is doable under the tropical condition of the Philippines. The dairy goats averaged over 2 liters of milk per day,” he said.
In reviewing the 2009 performance they saw why they were very successful in their dairy milking operation with the Saanen breed and just average with their Boer breeder operation.
This is what they saw:
1. The dairy goats were prioritized in feeding the highly digestible and young forage grass and legumes.
2. The Boer breeders were given the excess matured forage available.
3. The emergence of indigofera as a sought-after legume for the milking goats.
4. The huge volumes of indigofera being harvested compared with the other legumes planted.
5. Improvement of the milk performance of dairy goats whenever fresh indigofera was included in the feeds.
These observations can be confirmed through a research work done by Ngo van Man, Nguyen van Hao & Vuon minh Tri of the Animal Nutrition Department, University of Agriculture and Forestry in Ho Chi Min City Vietnam. According to their study, indigofera’s plant growth rate as well as its biomass yields are much higher compared to most of the plants included in the research. In selecting the tree legumes to be studied, they chose drought resistant species that will perform on poor soils. The soil was fertilized with goat manure and organic fertilizer during the study.
The increasing milk yields of the AGF dairy goats after adding indigofera to their daily feeding regimen can also be attributed to the indigofera’s 24.8% protein level, the 84.8 % digestibility plus its 2.08% calcium content.
AGF’s confidence with the Alaminos Salad Garden bannered by the tree legume indigofera is at an all time high. The Almedas started pursuing this project seriously in early 2010 by purchasing a Bowa hand tractor. A full time worker was assigned for the planting of indigofera, mulberry and centrosema. During the dry spell at the time of El Nino, they installed drip irrigation and sprinklers in their pasture at great expense. The Alaminos Salad Garden has started to provide part of the forage requirement of their Boer breeders and the full requirement of their dairy goats in 2010.
“Palatabilty is one issue the experts are hitting us about indigofera. Our experience indicates that if you cut it every 30 days, you improve digestibility and palatability. To address this issue you must start teaching your goats to eat indigofera when they are still young,” stresses Almeda.
The Saanen milking goats in Alaminos love indigofera and it is one of AGF’s secret in successfully milking them for 305 days under the tropical condition of the Philippines. It was their farm manager Felino Serdan who stumbled upon the indigofera tree legume.
He observed that the goats love and relish eating it. In their daily milk recording, they noticed an increase in milk yields. He cuts the indigofera every 30 days to augment his feeding. This is when they discovered that it is fast growing and produces a lot of edible leaves and stem.
“We ended 2010 with a very bright outlook for 2011 because of our Alaminos Salad Garden. It will be fully operational in 2011 to provide the full forage requirement of highly digestible and protein rich forage legumes and grass for all the goats in our farm,” says Rene.
AGF has partnered with the Bureau of Animal Industry’s, Research Division to implement a project funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research to commercialize the technology they have developed through their Alaminos Salad Garden. Pelletized Total Mixed Ration (TMR) using a mixture of indigofera and malunggay plus feed concentrate will be fed to dairy goats in a controlled environment to show its positive effect in milk production.
Indigofera is one of the easiest tree legumes to plant and establish during the rainy season. Its biomass yield and protein level are one of the highest among the tree legumes the Almedas have planted. When cut every 30 days it is a highly digestible feed for goats. Based on their experience with the Alaminos Salad Garden, this is one doable technology that can help the poor farmers raising goats in the countryside tp improve productivity.
Indigofera can supplement the feeding of forage and crop residue of low nutritive values to goats the farmers raise.
“Watch as we pursue our advocacy in genetics and nutrition in 2011. The Alaminos Salad Garden would be in the limelight as we commercialize the technology to improve productivity and help modernize the goat raising industry in the Philippines. Hand in hand with genetic infusion in the countryside through Artificial Insemination, there is no way but up for goat raising in the Philippines. If only government officials were listening,” Rene Almeda concludes.

Poisonous Plants

Factors contributing to plant poisoning are starvation, accidental eating and browsing habits of animals. Starvation is the most common reason. Most woodland or swampy-ground pastures contain many species of poisonous plants.

These are usually eaten only when animals have nothing else to eat. Certain plants are accidentally eaten by animals as they graze. A notable example of this is water hemlock. This plant emerges in wet areas which are the first to become green in early spring.

Animals eager to eat the fresh young grass may accidentally bite off the crown of this plant with fatal results. Another type of accidental poisoning occurs when large amounts of cockle are present in wheat which is fed as grain. Some animals on good feed in a dry lot or excellent pasture become bored with the same regular diet. They may eat unpalatable weeds or ornamental plants growing along fences. Goats and cattle like to vary the best kind of diet with a little ''browse''. Many ornamental or wild shrubs may be consumed, not because they are palatable but because the animal craves variation in its diet.

The severity of poisoning is related to the quantity of material eaten, the specie of animal eating the plant, portion of the plant and condition of the plant eaten, level of ground moisture, general health of the animal prior to ingesting the substance and the age and size of the animal. Therefore some livestock can eat some of the bad plants and under several of the mentioned conditions, fail to show symptoms of injury or poisoning. At other times death may occur. Scores of plants contain material toxic to animals if eaten in sufficient quantity. Some of the plants are well known, some quite rare, some are useful, others are valued ornamentals.

They may be grouped by the type of poison contained, the effect of their toxins or the part of the plant containing the poison. Some plants may contain several poisonous principals. Cyanogenetic Plants These contain under certain conditions, prussic acid (hydrocyanic acid), a deadly poison which interfers with the oxygen-carrying ability of the blood. Death in these cases is usually rapid and with little outward symptoms. Members of the prunus family of plants, especially wild cherries, are dangerous. Peaches, plums and other stone fruits belong to this group of plants. Wilting of the green leaves caused by frost, storm damage, or by cutting, changes a glucoside found in the leaves to hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and sugar.

The sweet, wilted leaves are thus more attractive to animals than normal foliage. HCN content varies widely; but under some conditions a few handfuls of leaves may be enough to kill a horse or cow. This type of poisoning should be suspected when sudden death of animals follows windstorms or early sharp frosts. These leaves apparently lose their poison after they have become dry; the limp, green or partially yellowed leaves are the most dangerous. Sudan grass and sorghums are also cyanogenetic plants.

These plants are usually deadly when damaged or frozen. Aftermath sprouts following an early frost are particularly dangerous. Very little sudan grass poisoning occurs from animals trampling down plants and later eating them although this is often listed as dangerous. In dry weather, sudan grass is often pastured to the ground without ill effects. After sudan grass has been repeatedly frozen and the plants are completely dead, it is safe but not very valuable for pasture. Once frozen, sorghum, sorghum sudan hybrids, or their aftermath should never be pastured. As long as the plants show any green color they may be very poisonous.

Both frosted sorghum and sudan grass can be best and most safely utilized by ensiling them for at least two weeks before feeding. Normal ensilage fermentation safely eliminates the poisonous principle. Common milkweed, a perennial that grows three or four feet high, has a heavy stem and leaves and is frequently found in pastures. The milky white sap is sticky and has a bitter taste but livestock eat the topmost, tender leaves if good forage isn't abundant. Remove plants by spading, pulling, cutting or plowing extensive areas and planting to cultivated crops for a year or two. Horse nettle is a perennial plant, two-feet-high, with spiny stems and leaves, and smooth, orange-yellow berries.

Fruits are more toxic than the foliage. It's a common plant in grasslands and fields and is a member of the nightshade family. Black nightshade is an annual plant, two-feet high, with many branches. Leaves are variably smooth or hairy. The stems angled in cross-section and sometimes spiny. Clusters of white flowers, one-fourth inch across, bloom in midsummer and are followed by small, black fruits. Both the foliage and green berries are toxic. The ripe berries are not poisonous. Black nightshade is widely distributed.

Mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub of the Appalachian Mountain region. Plants grow five-feet tall and have glossy green leaves. Flowers appear in clusters at the ends of branches. Livestock eat the leaves in early spring when little other foliage is available. Weakness, nausea, salivation and vomitting are symptoms of poisoning. The preventative is to keep livestock out of areas where mountain laurel is abundant. Plants Containing Deadly Alkaloids Fortunately these plants are unpalatable for most wild and domestic animals. Water hemlock and poison hemlock are deadly. Poisoning rarely occurs except in early spring when young plants are accidentally eaten, but the roots, stems, leaves and flowers are always poisonous.

Look for and learn to identify these plants in the summer when they are large and showy. The hemlocks are members of the carrot family and have showy, white, umbrella-like flower heads. Poison hemlock needs dry land to grow and is often found in gardens as an ornamental plant. Flowers are often incorporated into large mixed flower sprays in rural churches and at social events. Water hemlock - a perennial frequently found in wet, fertile soil - is a five-foot-tall plant with thick rootstocks, doubly compound leaves (fernlike) and small white flowers in umbrella-like clusters. The roots are the most poisonous parts of the plants.

Cut the thick rootstocks lengthwise and you'll find air cavities separated by plate-like partitions of solid tissue. Drops of yellowish, aromatic, resin-like exudate containing the poisonous alkaloid appear at the cuts. Leaves and seeds contain little of the toxic substance and eaten in small quantities, either green or in hay, do little harm. Water hemlock starts growth in early spring. Its green foliage may show up before most other plants leaf out. Livestock tug at the tender leaves and pull roots from the soil which are still soft from late winter rains. The combinations of foliage and roots in considerable quantity can be fatal. As a preventative, pull water hemlock plants from the soil during the summer when they can readily be found and destroy them.

Plants usually are not numerous in an area. Poison hemlock is a hollow-stemmed biennial, four-feet high, with double compound leaves resembling parsley and a large, white taproot like parsnip. Flowers are showy, umbrella-like clusters and appear in late summer. The poison is a volatile alkaloid, coniine, found in the foliage all season and in the seeds in late summer. Most livestock poisoning comes in the spring from eating fresh foliage. Mayapple, bloodroot, pokeweed, nightshade and hellebore are other alkaloidal plants. They are rarely eaten except when animals are starving for better feed. Deaths from alkaloidal plants usually result from severe digestive disturbances, pain and nervous symptoms. Animals usually die in convulsions. Plants That Are Photodynamic This means photo-sensitive animals get a reaction.

Conditions necessary for a reaction to occur are: 1) the animals must have white areas of skin (unpigmented); 2) the animals must eat a sufficient quantity of the plants; and 3) the animals must be exposed to bright sun. In typical cases, an animal suddenly becomes sore on the white areas of their bodies. Whole areas of white skin may raise up and slough off. White goats may become severely affected and die from this condition. Some common plants which cause photosensitization are rape, alsike clover, buckwheat, lantana, St. John's wort, and ornamental hypericums. Both St. John's wort and ornamental hypericums have showy, golden-yellow flowers. They are not readily eaten by animals. White goats frequently become badly ''sunburned'' when they are on rape pasture in bright, sunny weather with little or no shade. Alsike clover or other legumes may produce these symptoms in dairy goats under the above conditions.

Plants That Produce Mechanical Injury A number of plants may have a spiny covering, long beards, fine hairs and when eaten may cause mechanical injuries or form hair balls in the stomach and intestines. Sand bur, downy brome grass, squirrel-tail grass, poverty grass, mesquite, cocklebur and clover are some of the offending plants. Some Other Poisonous Plants Comparatively few plants containing poisons grow in areas usually used as pastures. Bracken fern is very common in wooded areas and unimproved pastures. Most animals will not eat bracken fern if there is adequate pasture or other feed. In ruminants, such as goats, bracken fern must be consumed over a period of several weeks before toxicity signs develop. Affected animals are listless, show weight loss and may exhibit small hemorrhages on the mucous membranes. They may die from internal hemorrhages. Buttercups contain an acrid, volatile alkaloid-amenenol, strong enough to blister the skin and cause inflammation of the intestinal tract. Cattle and goats poisoned by buttercups produce bitter milk and a reddish color. The toxic material volatilizes and is lost when buttercups are dried as in hay. A heavy growth of buttercup is an indication of low soil fertility. Have the soil analyzed and apply ground lime and fertilizers as their need is shown.

The increased grass growth soon crowds out buttercups. Poison ivy is widespread over most of the United States. It's a shrub or vine with woody stems that climb by attaching aerial rootlets to fences, walls, trees, etc. Leaves have three leaflets, glossy green and smooth at the edges. Inflammation of the skin from contact with the plants is an affliction of goat-keepers more frequently than of goats. The infection can become serious and may need medical attention. Kill poison ivy with a herbicide. Several ornamental plants that are green outdoors or indoors are highly toxic. Goats should not be fed clippings from ornamental plants. Common poisonous ornamentals are yew, delphinium, oleander, larkspur and lily-of-the-valley. Goats should not be allowed access to these plants. NOTE: USDA and the State Department of Agriculture in each state can offer help in providing reference material on poisonous plants.

A Listing of Some Plants Known to Cause Problems When Eaten by Livestock

(Source: Stock Poisoning Plants of North Carolina, Bulletin No. 144, by James Hardin; Plants Poisonous to Livestock in the Western States, USDA Information Bulletin No. 415; Poisonous Plants of Pennsylvania, Bulletin No. 531, PA Department of Agriculture) Cyanogenetic Plants (Glucosides - Glycosides) Arrow grass Black Locust Blue Cohosh Broomcarn Buckeye (Horse chestnut) Cherry Choke Cherry Corn Cockle Dogbane Elderberry Hemp Horse Nettle Indian Hemp Ivy Johnson grass Kafir Laurel Leucothoe Lily of the Valley Maleberry Marijuana Milkweeds Milo Nightshade Oleander Rhododendron Sevenbark Silver Sneezewood Sorghum Stagger brush Sudan grass Velvet grass White snakeroot Wild Black Cherry Wild Hydrangea Alkaloid Containing Plants Aconite Allspice Black Snake Root Bloodroot Blue Cohosh Boxwood Celandine Common Poppy Crotalaria Crow Poison Death Camas Dicentra False Hellebore False Jessamine Fume wort Hellebore Hemp Horse Nettle Indian Hemp Indian poke Jimson weed Larkspur Lobelia Lupines Marijuana Monkshood Moonseed Night shade Pink Death Camas Poison Darnel Poison Hemlock Poison rye grass Rattleweed Rock Poppy Spider Lily Spotted cowbane Spotted Water Hemlock Stagger grass Staggerweed Sweet Shrub Thorn Apple Varebells Wild Parsnip Wolfs-bane Yellow Jessamine Volatile or Essential Oils as Poisonous Principle Baneberry Buttercups Crowfoot Ground Ivy Lobelia Snakeberry Spurge White Cohish Saponin Containing Plants Bagpod Coffee weed Purple sesban Rattlebox Soapwort Photosensitizing Plants Buckwheat Goat weed Klamath weed Lantana Rape St. John's Wort Plants That Cause Mechanical Injury Clover Cocklebur Downy Brome grass Sand Bur Squirrel tail grass Tannin (Tannic Acid) as Poisonous Principle Oaks Poisonous Principle Not Exactly Known Inkberry Poke weed Resins as Poisonous Principle Discarded Christmas trees Ponderosa Pine needles

Feral Goat


The feral goat is the domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) when it has become established in the wild. Feral goats occur in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Great Britain, Hawaii, the Galapagos and in many other parts of the world. 

When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may become an invasive species with serious negative effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation. 

However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat, even replacing locally extinct wild goats. Feral goats are sometimes used for conservation grazing, to control the spread of undesirable scrub or weeds in open natural habitats such as chalk grassland and heathland.

Toggenburg Goat


The Toggenburg is a breed of goat, named after the region in Switzerland where the breed originated, the Toggenburg valley. It is also the oldest registered breed. 

Toggenburgs are medium in size, moderate in production, and have relatively low butterfat content (2-3%) in their milk. Toggenburgs possess a general Swiss Marked pattern with various dilutions. The color is solid varying from light fawn to dark chocolate, with no preference for any shade. Distinct white markings are as follows: white ears with dark spot in middle; two white stripes down the face from above each eye to the muzzle; hind legs white from hocks to hooves; forelegs white from knees downward with a dark line (band) below knee acceptable; a white triangle on either side of the tail.

Wattles, small rudimentary nubs of skin located on each side of the neck, are often present in this breed. The Toggenburg breed underwent a development program when introduced to Britain; the resulting British Toggenburgs are heavier and have improved milk quality. 

By the middle of 2002, 4146 Toggenburgs had been registered with the New Zealand Dairy Goat Breeders Association, representing 8.10% of registered dairy goats. They perform better in cooler conditions. They are the oldest known dairy breed of goats. Toggenburgs should have compact bodies, and does should have high, well-attached udders. 

They should have straight or dished faces, but never roman noses. Toggenburgs are generally a friendly, quiet and gentle breed, and are good as pets. Toggenburgs are arguably the hardiest of all goat breeds; crosses with meat goats (i.e. Kalahari red, Boar goats) can add better growth rates to their offspring, offering a milking line to the offspring of meat goats.

Monday, 26 November 2012

Anglo-Nubian Goat

The Anglo-Nubian, or simply Nubian in the United States, is a breed of domestic goat. The breed was developed in Great Britain of native milking stock and goats from the Middle East and North Africa. 

Its distinguishing characteristics include large, pendulous ears and a "Roman" nose. Due to their Middle-Eastern heritage, Anglo-Nubians can live in very hot climates and have a longer breeding season than other dairy goats. 

Considered a dairy or dual-purpose breed, Anglo-Nubians are known for the high butterfat content of their milk, although on average, the breed produces less milk than other dairy breeds. Anglo-Nubians are large, with does weighing at least 135 pounds (61 kg) and 175 pounds (79 kg) for bucks. 

The minimum height of the breed, measured at the withers, is 30 inches (76 cm) for does and 35 inches (89 cm) for bucks. Like most dairy goats, they are normally kept hornless by disbudding within approximately two weeks of birth.

History
The Anglo-Nubian breed originated in England as a cross between the Old English Milch Goat and the Zariby and Nubian bucks imported from India, Russia, and Egypt. They have been exported to most countries from England. In the United States and Canada, they are referred to as simply Nubians.

Kalahari / Red Boer

The Red Boer goat is a cross between the Boer goat and the Kalahari red goat. It is a good, strong meat breed and is quite hardy due to the crossing of the breeds. 

Red Boers can be red coloured, like the Kalahari red, or can have a black or brown head and a white body, a bit like the Boer. Red Boers are calm and can be excellent mothers or pets. They are docile, hardy, and their meat is good. They make excellent pets and are easy to tame. These goats produce excellent quality meat and are great entertainment for young children. 

Red Boers should have a slight arch on their nose, have good, strong back legs and have characteristics of both the Kalahari Reds and Boers. They can have large, floppy ears or slightly smaller ears, depending on their parents/ancestors etc. They should have hardly any problems with kidding and bonding with their kids. Red Boers hardly get sick and can live into double figures if looked after properly.

Ref
Wikipedia

Tannin 2

A tannin (also known as vegetable tannin, natural organic tannins or sometimes tannoid, i.e. a type of biomolecule, as opposed to modern synthetic tannin) is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids. 

The term tannin (from tanna, an Old High German word for oak or fir tree, as in Tannenbaum) refers to the use of wood tannins from oak in tanning animal hides into leather; hence the words "tan" and "tanning" for the treatment of leather. 

However, the term "tannin" by extension is widely applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups (such as carboxyls) to form strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules. 

The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play a role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as pesticides, and in plant growth regulation. The astringency from the tannins is what causes the dry and puckery feeling in the mouth following the consumption of unripened fruit or red wine. Likewise, the destruction or modification of tannins with time plays an important role in the ripening of fruit and the aging of wine. Tannins have molecular weights ranging from 500 to over 3,000 (gallic acid esters) and up to 20,000 (proanthocyanidins).

Tannins are incompatible with alkalis, gelatin, heavy metals, iron, limewater, metallic salts, strong oxidizing agents and zinc sulfate, since they form complexes and precipitate in aqueous solution.

Alif dan Yang Pertama



Gambar.
Itu Alif kawan. Anak kedua dan lelaki pertama Awang.
Sebelahnya pula anak kambing pertama Awang.
Tag no.
1/251112_BJ_J
Kelahiran pertama pada 25 Nov 2012 baka Boer cross Jamanapari pada pukul 1950 mlm.

Ini bulan Muharaam 1434H tahun pertama kawan.

34 pula bermaksud Mac tahun depan Awang juga berumur 34 tahun.

Anak kembing pertama,
Jantan pertama
Bulan hijrah pertama
dan diperhatikan oleh Alif (yang pertama).

Ia cukup bersejarah buat Awang!

Friday, 23 November 2012

Forage

Amongst land animals, forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.

Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage.

Amongst aquatic animal, the term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.

While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennal, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.

Saliva

Saliva is a watery substance located in the mouths of organisms, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva is composed of 99.5% water, while the other 0.5% consists of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, and antibacterial compounds such as secretory IgA and lysozyme.

The enzymes found in saliva are essential in beginning the process of digestion of dietary starches and fats. These enzymes also play a role in breaking down food particles entrapped within dental crevices, protecting teeth from bacterial decay.

Furthermore, saliva serves a lubricative function, wetting food and permitting the initiation of swallowing, and protecting the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity from desiccation. Various species have special uses for saliva that go beyond predigestion. Some swifts use their gummy saliva to build nests. Aerodramus nests are prized for use in bird's nest soup.

Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with venomous saliva injected by fangs. Some arthropods, such as spiders and caterpillars, create thread from salivary glands.

Ruminant Food

From Dr. Marie Bulgin 

Ruminant animals are designed to eat forages. They can meet all of their energy needs to grow, reproduce and stay healthy with feed that consist of 100% good quality roughage (alfalfa, grass-hay or good pasture). 

However, supplementation during certain periods. with concentrates (whole corn, barley, wheat, oats or other high carbohydrate feeds) may be in order. Ruminant animals. have a stomach that is composed of four compartments - reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum. The rumen serves as a large fermentation vat in which bacteria and protozoa actually digest the cellulose (otherwise known as fiber) in the forage which mammals can not do. 

The ruminant adds saliva to this material as it chews and swallows and then rechews when it later regurgitates (belches up) this material. This process is called rumination. (People say the animal is chewing its cud.) The purpose of the saliva is to add bicarbonate molecules to the rumen which helps control the acidity of the fermentation that goes on in the rumen. 

Once the fiber is partially digested and the particle size of the material is right, the feed goes through the other stomachs including the abomesum, which is actually the true stomach, just like the stomach of other mammals. 

There are two types of forages commonly fed to ruminants; 

legumes and 
grasses. 

Alfalfa, clovers, peas and beans are all legumes. These plants provide quite a bit more protein than other grasses and plants. Thus, for hay, at least, alfalfa is preferred because it is considered to be a higher quality feed. 

Protein is especially important in growing animals since protein can be likened to bricks, building blocks used to build tissue and bone. When purchasing feeds, protein content usually determines price. Even so alfalfa hay is generally the cheapest source of protein. The only draw back to the protein in alfalfa is that it is not readily available to the young ruminant which really isn't a ruminant at all until it develops the rumen organisms it needs to digest cellulose. 

For the calf, this would be about 6-7 months of age, for the kid and lamb it would be 60-90 days of age. Milk protein (100% digestible) is definitely the highest quality of protein that can be fed to young stock, and soy protein becomes beneficial as the youngster gets a little older, 60 days for calves, 30 days for the smaller ruminants. TDN which stands for total digestible nutrients is a measure of the energy present in the feed and is particularly important when trying to fatten animals or late in pregnancy as it protects against "ketosis" and "pregnancy toxemia,"- higher the value the better. Energy can be likened to gasoline. 

It runs the heart, lungs, brain, legs, etc. When the amount of energy is greater than the needs of the body, it is stored as fat. Thus, energy and protein need to be balanced according to the individual. A growing animal, a pregnant animal or a lactating animal all need more protein than an adult who has weaned her offspring and isn't pregnant. 

A working animal (cutting horse, breeding bull or sheep dog) all need a lot of energy.—And of course, show animals and feedlot animals which should be fat, need a lot of energy. Most forages, including alfalfa hay, have TDNs of around 50-55%. 

Grains and seeds on the other hand tend to have TDNs of 75-85%. Thus, when a high energy diet is required, one of the grains, often corn, is added to the diet. The major problem feeding grains are their propensity for producing acid when fermented by the rumen organisms. When the amount of grain is relatively small, the bicarbonate in the saliva will buffer the acid produced and all is well. However, if the animal is suddenly exposed to a lot of grain all at once, the acid produced will overwhelm the buffering capacity of the saliva and the animal becomes sick or acidotic. 

This is a serious condition requiring veterinary help and has killed many an animal. However, grain can be increased by small increments over time and the rumen organisms will adapt and not produce so much acid. 

Other nutrients besides protein and energy, (there are a total of 5) that need consideration are minerals, vitamins and water. 

Minerals are divided into macro minerals which are measured in grams or ozs and microminerals, measured in parts per million (ppm). Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are macrominerals and are very important for the production of bone and milk. 

Alfalfa hay has a calcium content of 1.4% but only 0.23%. phosphorus so it is a good supplier of calcium. Grains, on the other hand, have calcium contents of 0.1% while the phosphorus content is 0.4%. So, grains are better suppliers of P. For the best utilization of both calcium and phosphorus the over all Ca:P ratio should be 2.5 to 1. 

Keeping these minerals balanced can prevent urolithiasis (stones) in steers, bulls, wethers, rams and bucks. A good trace mineral salt generally supplies all of the needed microminerals although microminerals needs differ according to the species of animals. Almost all animals need more copper than sheep. 

It is very easy to give sheep too much copper. Make sure that there is no added copper in a trace mineral salt that is going to be fed to sheep. All animals need selenium. Selenium is deficient in many parts of the country. In those cases animal owners should make sure there is at least 90 ppm of selenium in the mix. 

Two important vitamin needs are Vitamin A and Vitamin D. Vitamin A is essential for keeping the skin, hooves and interior body linings in good repair. It is needed in larger amounts by young growing animals, lactating and pregnant animals. It can be supplied by any nice green forage and green leafy hay that was put up within the last year. 

Vitamin A is stored in the liver and animals on pasture during the summer usually store enough to make it through the winter, even if feed is low in vitamin A. Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine and for the building and repair of bones. The action of sunlight on the skin of animals can convert certain compounds in the skin into vitamin D. 

During the summer when animals are outside in the sun, they will make all the vitamin D they need. When animals are kept inside most of the time, or they live in rainy cloudy conditions (western Oregon for example), vitamin D should be supplemented. 

Nice green leafy hay that has been sun cured is also high in vitamin D. Vitamin E and selenium are co-workers. Together they are important in the production of immunity against diseases, certain enzymes and the integrity of muscle and red blood cells. Deficiencies of these two cause poor growth, poor health and in severe cases, white muscle disease. Vitamin E is also high in green leafy plants and hays, but is not stored in the body. If poor quality hay is being used during the winter, vitamin E should be supplemented. 

Water makes up the fifth essential nutrient. Adequate clean water should always be available. Ruminants require large amounts of water daily to keep the contents of their rumens in a liquid phase. Otherwise, the bacteria can not optimally mix with the feed. As a matter of fact, when water is restricted, ruminants will restrict the amount of dry matter they take in. Thus, feed efficiency and gain will be markedly affected. 

Lack of water also encourages the formation of bladder stones in the male. Alfalfa and corn make up the most common ruminant diets, although any forage and any grain can be substituted depending on availability and price. 

Field or dent corn: is commonly fed whole to small ruminant as they are more apt to chew their feed than cattle. Cattle which tend to swallow their food whole, do not digest whole grain well and they pass through in the manure. Yellow dent corn is dried in the field, creating a "dent" at the top of the kernel. 

About 90% of it is used for animal feed as it has a very thick outer skin that doesn't soften much even if you cook it for hours. Bovatec, a coccidiostat, limestone to supply calcium, vitamin A, D, or E, thiamine, minerals, salt, bicarbonate, antibloat compounds, antibiotics or other supplementation may also be included in diets depending on the ratio of forage to grain and the current disease problems being experience by the animals.

Tannin

Tannin toxicity in ruminant animals 

Tannins are phenolic compounds that are commonly found in plants. These compounds play a role in protection from predation, as well as growth regulation, when they are digested by herbivores. 

Found in the leaf, bud, seed, root, and stem tissues, tannins are widely distributed in many different species of plants. 

Tannins are separated into two classes: 

1. hydrolysable tannins and 
2. condensed tannins. 


Depending on their concentration and nature either class can have adverse or beneficial effects. When ruminants digest some plants, they acquire a surplus of tannins and rumen microbes do not have the enzymatic ability for degrading condensed tannins. 

In fact, digestion of tannins by ruminants in large amounts can reduce the activity and the proliferation of ruminal microorganisms reducing ruminal biohydrogenation.

Tannins can also precipitate proteins and inhibit the absorption of nutrients. Very high levels of tannin intake can produce toxicity that can even cause death. Animals normally consuming tannin-rich plants can develop defensive mechanisms against tannins, such as the strategic deployment of lipids and extracellular polysaccharides that have a high affinity to binding to tannins. 

These mechanisms prevent tannins from causing adverse effects on rumen microbes.

Rumen Microbiology

Vertebrates lack the ability to hydrolyse beta glycosidic bond of plant cellulose due to the lack of an enzyme celulase. Thus ruminants must completely depend upon the microbial flora, present in rumen or hindgut, so as to digest cellulose. 

Digestion of food in rumen is primarily carried out by the rumen microflora which contain dense populations of several species of bacteria, protozoa, sometimes yeasts and fungi. It is estimated that 1mm of rumen contains 10-50 billion bacteria, 1 million protozoa and several yeasts, fungi.

As the environment inside a rumen is anaerobic, most of these microbial species are obligate or facultative anaerobes which can decompose complex plant material such as cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, proteins. Hydrolysis of cellulose results in sugars which are further fermentated to acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, carbon dioxide and methane. During grazing, ruminants produce large amount of saliva. Estimates are within 100 to 150 litres of saliva per day for an adult cow.

The role of saliva is to provide ample fluid for rumen fermentation and as a buffering agent.

Rumen fermentation produces large amounts of organic acids and thus maintaining the appropriate pH of rumen fluids is a critical factor in rumen fermentation.

Ruminant Physiology

Ruminating animals have various physiological features which enable them to survive in nature. One feature of ruminants is their continuously growing teeth. 

During grazing, the silica content in forage causes abrasion of teeth. Abrasion of the teeth is compensated by continuous tooth growth throughout the ruminant's life, as opposed to humans or other non-ruminants whose teeth stop growing after a particular age. 

Most ruminants do not have upper incisors; instead they have a thick dental pad to thoroughly bite food. Camels and llamas are exceptions; their dentition shows traces of vesitigial central incisors in the upper jaw.

Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum & Abomasum


The primary difference between a ruminant and non-ruminant (called monogastrics, such as humans, dogs, and pigs) is that ruminants have a four-compartment stomach. 

The four parts of the stomach are rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. 

In the first two chambers, the rumen and the reticulum, the food is mixed with saliva and separates into layers of solid and liquid material. Solids clump together to form the cud or bolus. The cud is then regurgitated and chewed to completely mix it with saliva and to break down the particle size. 

Fiber, especially cellulose and hemi-cellulose, is primarily broken down into the three volatile fatty acids (VFAs), acetic acid, propanoic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid, in these chambers by microbes (mostly bacteria and well as some protozoa, fungi and yeast). 

Protein and non-structural carbohydrate (pectin, sugars, starches) are also fermented. Even though the rumen and reticulum have different names they represent the same functional space as digesta can move back and forth between them. Together these chambers are called the reticulorumen. 

The degraded digesta, which is now in the lower liquid part of the reticulorumen, then passes into the next chamber, the omasum, where water and many of the inorganic mineral elements are absorbed into the blood stream. After this the digesta is moved to the true stomach, the abomasum. 

The abomasum is the direct equivalent of the monogastric stomach (for example that of the human or pig), and digesta is digested here in much the same way. Digesta is finally moved into the small intestine, where the digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs. Microbes produced in the reticulorumen are also digested in the small intestine. Fermentation continues in the large intestine in the same way as in the reticulorumen. 

Only small amounts of glucose are absorbed from dietary carbohydrates. Most dietary carbohydrates are fermented into VFAs in the rumen. The glucose needed as energy for the brain and for lactose and milk fat in milk production, as well as other uses, comes from non-sugar sources such as the VFA propionate, glycerol, lactate and protein. 

The VFA propionate is used for around 70% of the glucose and glycogen produced and protein for another 20% (50% under starvation conditions). 

Ruminant

A ruminant is a mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first compartment of the stomach, principally through bacterial actions, then regurgitating the semi-digested mass, now known as cud, and chewing it again. 

The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called "ruminating".

There are about 150 species of ruminants which include both domestic and wild species. Ruminating mammals include cattle, goats, sheep, giraffes, bison, moose, elk, yaks, water buffalo, deer, camels, alpacas, llamas, antelope, pronghorn, and nilgai. 

Taxonomically, the suborder Ruminantia includes all those species except the camels, llamas, and alpacas, which are Tylopoda. Therefore, the term 'ruminant' is not synonymous with Ruminantia. 

The word "ruminant" comes from the Latin ruminare, which means "to chew over again"

Ref
Wikipedia

Thursday, 22 November 2012

Obor Hemah



Guru adalah awan indah terbang rendah,
melimpahkan hujan pada musim gersang,
menyegarkan benih ilmu, berbuah hikmah;
ia renjis embun pada tanah bakat,
suara ihsan ketika manusia kalah,
sepi yang syahdu dalam dunia resah.

Guru - atap ganti ketika pondok bocor,
kitab sejarah dalam bilik darjah,
senyum penyembuh bagi wabak sengsara,
ia - sungai rangsang sentiasa tenang,
menghantar bahtera ke segara dharma,
memesan angin menghikmahkannya.

Guru adalah penelaah yang tekun,
mewariskan dunia sebagai kutubkhanah,
ia menyediakan kutubukhanah sebagai dunia,
ia mengemudi biduk, melepaskannya,
atas lambungan laut, merangsangkan
manusia menyelami rahsia khazanahnya.

Guru - minda segar dan kukuh akar,
menghidupkan batin yang bersih,
di daerah dunia cemar kasih,
dan pada ketika tak tersangkakan,
walaupun diambilnya kembali semua buku,
sempat ditinggalkan asas ilmu.

Guru adalah batin suci hatinurani,
penjunjung budi, manusia yang takwa,
obor hemah kehidupan bangsa.

A. Samad Said

2 April 1988


Tuesday, 20 November 2012

Kajian kesan tinja kambing kepada pokok sawit berpenyakit Ganoderma

Sejak menjerumuskan diri dalam industri ruminan, pelbagai soalan dan ilmu baru memasuki kotak minda dan otak yang berpusing ligat. Adakah ia petunjuk jelas bahawa satu masa nanti insan bernama Awang ini akan menjadi Awang Kambing! hah

..**
Ini pokok sawit kawan. Pokok sawit yang menjadi komoditi, sumber nafkah beratus ribu insan di dunia, sumber cukai negara yang berjumlah berbillion ringgit dan sumber pengerak ekonomi negara!

Ini pokok sawit yang dianggarkan berumur kurang 10 tahun yang sudah mengeluarkan hasil dalam anggaran 15 hingga 28 mt/hr/yr bergantung pada prestasi syarikat serta pengurusan.
 Seperti jua hidupan yang diciptakan Allah, pokok sawit juga ada penyakitnya. Ganoderma. Ya kawan! Kopi ganoderma adalah keluarga yang sama dengan goderma pokok sawit. Namun, ia ganoderma yang amat disukai oleh pengemar kopi yang termakan pujuk rayu iklan-sumber duit media negara.

Ini contoh kulat ganoderma. Namun kawan, di ladang sawit, ia amat dibenci malah menjadi musuh utama pokok sawit!

 Ini pula cara kulat ganoderma merebak melalui akar.

Ini pula kesan pada pokok tua.
 Kesan pada pokok muda!
 dan akhirnya pokok-pokok sawit ini akan mati. Sebelum mati, ia juga akan menyebabkan pokok lain kiri kanan depan belakang serta jiran - jirannya turut berjangkit!

Dari sudut ekonomi dan jangka masa panjang, bila pokok sudah kena penyakit ala-ala kanser pada manusia, pokok ini tidak akan berbuah.

Tidak aka mengeluarkan hasil serta kan merugikan peladang, negara serta kerajaan tidak boleh lagi mengutip cukai yang tinggi sperti sekarang.

..**
Kisah kambing. Ini pula kambing kawan! (Insan gambar alwigoatfarm). Gambar kambing - kambing baru keluar waktu pagi untuk meragut dalam ladang sawit. Ya kawan, waktu pagi. Pukul 9 pagi kawan! 
 Ini pula kambing yang simpan dalam kandang pukul 9 pagi. Tapi dibagi makan daun kelapa sawit.
Satu kumpulan dibiar bebas meragut ikut-suka-hati mau makan apa. Satu kumpulan dikurung-paksa-makan daun sawit.

Mana yang lebih gembira-bahagia kawan? sendiri mau jawablah!
Ini pula tinja aka tahi kambing kawan.

Awang mahu menjadi pengkaji aka saintis kawan! Dia mahu kaji apakah terdapat kesan positif tinja kambing kepada pokok sawit. Secara spesifik adalah kesan tinja kambing kepada pokok sawit berpenyakit ganoderma.

Senang saja ujikajinya. 
1. Cari pokok sawit yang sudah teruk-mau-mati-esok-lusa disebabkan penyakit ganoderma.
2. Simpan tinja kambing mengikut-sukatan-suka-hati
3. Perhatikan pokok sawit tersebut setiap hari. Ambil gambar. Kaji gambar tersebut. Apakah ada perubahan?

Jangan risau kawau. Pokok sawit itu tidak akan mati disebabkan terlebih tinja kambing. Kerana tinjanya tidak lain hanya pokok - pokok serta pucuk rumput rumbuhan-hidup-liar dalam ladang sawit.

Dari tanah kepada tanah. Rawatan terbaik kepada tanah menggunakan tanah.

Secara ilmiahnya, ia belum pernah dikaji oleh sesiapa. Namun, Awang cukup optimis, ia akan membuahkan hasil. Ayuh kawan - kawan di luar sana. Kaji dan kaji. Tidak rugi kita mengikut sunnah para ilmuan serta sarjana duluan yang telah menjadi pelopor kepada ibu segala ilmu.

Bukan gelaran dikejar, tapi mencari kebenaran.

Laksana kata alwigoatfarm, berlian kebenaran itu di bawah timbunan batu kepalsuan.

Jika kajian ini berjaya, ia akan memberikan impak yang besar kepada industri sawit dan juga industri ruminan negara.

Ia akan membuka pintu kepada syrkt besar negara untuk mewujudkan integrasi sawit dan kambing secara skala besar.

Jika burung hantu boleh diperlihara untuk membasmi tikus yang memakan buah sawit, kenapa tidak dipelihara kambing yang boleh :-

1. Mengurangkan kos racun rumpai
2. Kos pekerja spray racun rumpai
3. Kos baja kerana menggunakan baja tinja kambing
4. Mejana keuntungan kerana kambing memberikan pulangan yang lumayan.

Ya kawan, kenapa tidak?

Ayuh kita usahakan. Jika tiada yang berminat, saya sanggup!

Salam.


GARIS PANDUAN PENGURUSAN PENYAKIT GANODERMA / PENYAKIT REPUT PANGKAL BATANG (RPB) TANAMAN SAWIT

Ref
http://www.risda.gov.my/


1.0 PENGENALAN 

Penyakit Ganoderma atau Penyakit Reput Pangkal Batang (RPB) telah dilaporkan terjadi ke atas pokok sawit yang ditanam di semua jenis tanah, iaitu tanah lanar pantai, pedalaman, gambut dan laterit. Ia juga menyerang tanaman kelapa, pokok getah dan teh. 

Di Semenanjung Malaysia, kejadian telah dilaporkan berlaku di sepanjang kawasan pantai barat terutamanya di Seberang Prai, Sungai Kerian, Teluk Intan, Banting, Gemencheh, Segamat dan Pontian. 

Di kawasan tanah jenis pantai, kejadian penyakit menjadi lebih serius apabila pokok sawit ditanam di tanah bekas tanaman kelapa yang dibiarkan reput di ladang. Ganoderma telah menyerang tanaman sawit sejak mula diusahakan di negara ini tetapi pada ketika itu ia tidak dianggap sebagai ancaman serius kerana hanya menyerang pokok yang tua (melebihi 25 tahun). 

Namun, pada masa ini penyakit RPB menjadi bertambah serius berbanding dulu kerana telah menunjukkan ancamannya terhadap pokok yang berusia kurang dari dua tahun seperti yang telah dilaporkan pada tahun 1990. Lebih 50 peratus kawasan tanaman sawit di Semenanjung Malaysia kini menghadapi ancaman serangan penyakit RPB. Serangan akan menyebabkan kemusnahan sehingga 80 peratus pokok sekiranya berlaku pada tempoh pembesarannya yang produktif. Serangan Ganoderma pada kadar 31 hingga 67 peratus akan mempengaruhi penghasilan buah tandan segar antara 26 hingga 45 peratus yang sekaligus boleh menyebabkan kerugian berjuta-juta ringgit.

2.0 ORGANISMA PENYEBAB 

Penyelidikan Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia (MPOB) telah mengenalpasti empat spesies Ganoderma yang hidup pada pokok sawit di Malaysia iaitu  Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma zonatum, Ganoderma miniatocinctum  dan  Ganoderma tornatum. Kehadiran  G. boninense adalah faktor penting yang menggalakkan kejadian penyakit RPB yang tinggi di ladang sawit di  Malaysia kerana bersifat patogenik paling agresif manakala G. tornatum tidak patogenik dan hanya dijumpai hidup pada pokok sawit mati yang bertindak sebagai saprofit.



4.0 SIMPTOM PENYAKIT 

Simptom penyakit RPB yang disebabkan oleh  Ganoderma dikaitkan dengan kelemahan sistem pengangkutan air dan kekurangan nutrien jelas pada daun pokok yang dijangkiti. Simptom awal penyakit yang berlaku pada daun tidak boleh  disahkan dengan nyata  bahawa pokok tersebut diserang  Ganoderma kerana faktor fisiologi dan alam sekitar juga menunjukkan simptom yang sama iaitu; 

• air yang tidak mencukupi; 
• musim kemarau yang berpanjangan; 
• tanah sentiasa ditenggelami air; 
• tanah berasid tinggi; 
• kekurangan baja; 
• kesan fisiologi – batang dan pelepah patah 

4.1 Simptom Penyakit Pada Pokok Dewasa 

Pada pokok dewasa, simptom penyakit RPB adalah seperti berikut:  
• simptom boleh dilihat pada dedaun di mana pucuk daun dan petiol kelihatan berwarna hijau pudar berbanding dengan daun pokok sihat yang berwarna hijau; 
• pengeluaran pucuk daun yang berganda berbanding dengan pokok sihat biasanya mengeluarkan daun hingga tiga pucuk daun sebulan. Pucuk daun yang keluar didapati tidak mengembang; 
• pelepah di bahagian petiol akan patah dan jatuh tergantung mengelilingi bahagian atas batang pokok.   Pelepah yang kering ini akan gugur dan akhirnya pokok  kelihatan tidak mempunyai daun dan pelepah 
• Basidiomata atau jasad berbuah menyerupai struktur butang berwarna putih atau  bercuping (bracket-shape) mula terbentuk sama ada pada akar, batang atau  pelepah pokok. Kemunculan basidiomata ini merupakan tanda yang nyata bahawa pokok telah diserang Ganoderma.
  
Pokok sawit yang dijangkiti dijangka akan mati dalam jangka masa satu hingga tiga tahun selepas terbitnya tanda penyakit pada daun dan pelepah. Apabila pokok yang dijangkiti tumbang, Ganoderma yang berada di dalam akar dan tisu batang akan terus hidup sehingga tisu batang hancur.

4.2 Simptom Penyakit Pada Pokok Muda 

Serangan  Ganoderma  tidak hanya tertumpu pada pokok sawit yang berumur lebih daripada 10 tahun tetapi juga berlaku pada pokok muda yang baru ditanam.  Simptom dapat dilihat di mana daun dan pelepah tua berwarna kekuningan, kadangkala di  hujung daun menjadi kering atau nekrotik.  Akhirnya seluruh daun  dan pelepah menjadi layu dan kering. 

Pokok yang dijangkiti menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang lemah dan terbantut dan akhirnya tumbang.  




6.0 PENGAWALAN PENYAKIT SEBELUM/SEMASA PENANAMAN SEMULA 

Kejadian penyakit RPB yang tinggi didapati terjadi apabila sawit ditanam pada tanah bekas tanaman asalnya kelapa sekiranya pokok kelapa diracun dan dibiarkan reput di ladang, tanaman bawahan sawit dengan kelapa dan batang kelapa ditimbus ke dalam tanah sebagai satu kaedah pembersihan ladang. 

Kajian membandingkan beberapa teknik pengurusan tanam semula sawit bagi mengawal penyakit RPB mendapati teknik tanaman bawahan meningkatkan kejadian penyakit dengan  lebih cepat sementara teknik pembersihan sempurna (clean clearing) dan susunan batang (windrowing) mengikut lorong menunjukkan sedikit kemampuan untuk mengurangkan kejadian penyakit pada tanaman generasi berikutnya,  

6.1 Kaedah Pembersihan Sempurna  dan Susunan Batang 
Kaedah pembersihan sempurna telah dipraktikkan sebagai kaedah sanitasi untuk menghapuskan inokulum  di ladang.  Ia melibatkan kerjakerja meracun pokok, kemudian akar-akar di sekeliling pokok dikorek dan pokok ditumbangkan  dengan menggunakan jentolak.  Batang-batang pokok dipotong kepada tiga bahagian, kemudian disusun melonggok, dibiarkan kering dan dibakar.  Seterusnya akar-akar dan tisu-tisu pangkal batang yang masih berada di dalam tanah dikorek dan dikumpulkan untuk dimusnahkan.  

Dengan adanya jentolak hidrolik di mana cutter bucket telah diubahsuai, pokok tidak diracun sebaliknya terus ditumbangkan, windrowed ke avenue dan tisu-tisu akar dan batang dipecah-pecahkan kepada serpihan yang kecil.  Akar-akar yang tersimpul kukuh dengan pangkal batang pokok dikorek dengan menggali lubang seluas 1 x 1 x 1 meter.  Tisu-tisu akar dan batang dibiarkan sehingga cukup kering, kemudian dibakar sepenuhnya.  





Walaupun teknik pembersihan sempurna telah dijalankan ke atas pokokpokok tua tanaman asal, tetapi ianya tidak dapat menjamin kejadian penyakit berada pada peringkat yang lebih rendah. Langkah-langkah telah diambil untuk memperbaiki teknik tersebut dengan memperluaskan lubang yang dikorek kepada saiz 1.5  x 1.5 x 1.5 meter supaya dapat mengeluarkan lebih banyak akar-akar yang berada di dalam tanah.

Kaedah ini dijangka akan dapat menghapuskan inokulum Ganoderma di ladang dan seterusnya mengurangkan kejadian penyakit ke atas pokok muda yang ditanam.


6.2 Teknik Sanitasi Inovatif 

Kaedah sanitasi inovatif telah diperkenalkan untuk mengatasi masalah penyakit RPB dengan lebih signifikan.  Kaedah ini melibatkan kerja-kerja berikut:
• Menolak pokok tua secara mekanikal;
• Mengorek tanah dan tunggul batang tua dengan menggali lubang seluas 1.5 X 1.5 X 1.5 meter dan menimbus semula dengan tanah sekelilingnya;
• Memusnahkan tisu pokok tua dengan meracik batang, tunggul dan tisu akar menjadi cebisan kecil kemudian menyerakkan secara sekata sepanjang barisan tanaman pokok tua dan dibiarkan mereput;
• Membajak di kawasan antara barisan pokok tua atau sepanjang barisan penanaman baru dan diikuti dengan pembajakan putar; dan
• Menanam pokok sawit baru di  sepanjang kawasan yang telah dibajak dan jauh dari barisan tanaman lama.


8.0 PENUTUP 

Penyakit  Ganoderma atau Penyakit Reput  Pangkal Batang (RPB) merupakan penyakit paling serius  menyerang pokok sawit di Malaysia disebabkan oleh kulat  Ganoderma  sp.  Serangan penyakit ini berlaku pada kadar yang tinggi di kawasan  pantai barat Semenanjung Malaysia melibatkan kawasan yang tanaman asalnya kelapa atau sawit dan tidak terhad kepada pokok sawit tua sahaja.  Sedemikian adalah wajar dan penting pengetahuan mengenai penyakit ini serta kaedah penanaman semula dan rawatan diketahui oleh semua peringkat pegawai pelaksana.  

Semoga garis panduan ini dapat membantu pegawai  pelaksana di lapangan dalam mengurus penyakit Ganoderma ini dengan lebih baik dan mengurangkan risiko serangan penyakit ini di kalangan pekebun kecil.

Disediakan oleh,
Unit Pemindahan Teknologi
Bahagian Pengembangan dan Kesejahteraan Rakyat
RISDA