Sunday, 18 June 2017

Operasi Kilang Sawit / Palm Oil Mill Operation

PALM OIL MILL IS THE HEART OF OIL PALM ESTATES.
Multitasking tasks in the mill produce multitasking managers and engineers. From basic fundamental of mechanical engineering, electrical, chemical, civil, human resources, accounting, marketing, quality management, public relation, teacher, lawyer and also actor! Yes. All in one. Congratulation if you are one of them!






  1. FFB Reception
    1. Weighbridge 60 mt. One/two clerk depend on one shift or two shift.
    2. FFB Transportation. Land & Water. 




      Less maintenance vehicles.

      Safety First dude!


      Ramp and Bin System.



      Delivering the FFB from Estates to Mills is a challenging tasks to Planters. Whenever the loaded lorry arrive at mill's gate, millers should give respect to them by accepting their consignment to appreciate their hard work. Off course for the good FFB quality.
      Road is the key of estates operation.
    3. Annual calibration by Metrology / Service provider - Avery.
  2. Grading. 
    1. Grade the FFB quality based on MPOB Grading Manual-Latest 2015 Edition.
    2. 10 category FFB. Freshness. Unripe. Underipe. Ripe. Overipe. Long stalk. Empty. Rotten. Parthonorcorpic. Rotten. Wet.
    3. Oil palm profile. To determine the based OER. Year of planted. Weight of bunch.
    4. Based OER. 
    5. Penalty based on FFB quality 
    6. Certified FFB graders by MPOB.
    7. Helper 5 to 10 psn depend on the FFB daily reception.
    8. One loader to push the FFB.
    9. Good quality FFB. 95% ripe, 5% overipe, 5% underripe.
    10. FFB Grading based on load <5mt : 50 bunches & >5mt : 100 bunches sampling.

    11. Loose Fruit Analysis to determine the accuracy and measure the quantity of loose fruits.

       50 Bunches FFB Sampling by Graders.

      100 Bunches Sampling

      Old MPOB Grading Manual.
  3. Sterilization 
  4.  Vertical Sterilizer

    Spherical Sterilizer

    Spherical Sterilizer

    Spherical Sterilizer

    Continuous Sterilizer 

    Feeding of FFB to Vertical Steriliser

    Old style. FFB feeding to 3.5 mt Cages. Labor intensive of feedding ffb, arrranging cages and using of machinery such as loader and capstan. Safety issue and space. Maintenance of cages wear and tear.


    Spherical steriliser

    Horizontal sterilizer.

    Vertical sterilizer

    FFB Ramp, Conveyor system, Vertical Sterliser, EFB Hopper.

    1. Type of sterilizer. Horizontal. Vertical. Tilted. Spherical. Continuous. 
    2. Function : 
      1. To stop FFA increasing.
      2. To prepare the fruit/bunch for next processing.
    3. One peak, three peaks, multi peaks. 
    4. Pressure 3.2 bar or 120 deg C. 
    5. Cages size 3,5,7.5,10,15 or 20 mt each.
    6. Crane. 


    7. Dearation.
    8. Cycle.
    9. Capstan. 
    10. Cantilever. 
  5. Threshing

  6.  Shaft-less Thresher Drum



    Tippler use to handle the cage system.

    Tippler.
    Bunch Crusher using in Double Threshing System to reduce USB loss. Prepare the bunches for the EFB pressing or Shredding. 

    1. To separate the loose fruit and bunch.
    2. RPM.
    3. Type of threshing. with or without shaft.
    4. Single threshing or double threshing.
    5. Bunch crusher.
  7. Pressing
  8. Digester and Press


     Digester and Press

    Digester Schematic Diagram

    Digester Schematic Diagram



    Single and Double Screw Pressing

    Digester

    Cast steel screw press.

    1. Number and capacity of press determine the TPH of the mills.
    2. Capacity : 10. 15, 20, 25 mt/hr
    3. Twin screw. Cages. Screw. U liner. B plate. RH for replacement 700 to 1000 hrs.

    4. Digester. RPM. Long arm, short arm. S type. C type. Bottom plate. Temperature 95 deg C. Level 3/4. 3000 or 3500 liters capacity. 
    5. Losses. Nut breakage. Oil loss.
    6. Cake Breaker Conveyor.
  9. Nut Plant
    1. Ripple Mill. Nut breakage. Cracking Efficiency. Kernel breakage 12 to 15%.
    2. Nut Silo. Retention time.
    3. Hydrocylone or Claybatch.

      Cyclone system, Airlock using to separate the fiber, shell and kernel. Air or water separation.

      Kernel Bunker with load cell for weighing.

      3 stages hydro-cyclone. 

      Nut Silo to retain the nut to cool down and prepare the nut before cracking. 

      Kernel Silo. Heating to reduce moisture below 7%.

      Hydrocyclone diagram.Cone and liner.

      Ripplemill. Cracking the nut. Determine the kernel breakage at range 10 to 15 % is the better option rather than cracking efficiency (96-98%). Reduce kernel loss at air separation. 

      Ripplermill.
    4. Kernel losses. Shell. Dirt & Impurities.
  10. Kernel Plant
    1. Moisture.
    2. Kernel Silo. Heater.
  11. Kernel Storage
    1. Kernel bunker.
    2. To clean kernel silo and kernel bunker at least once a year to prevent fire. 
    3. Confined Space procedure to apply.
  12. Clarification 
    1. Vertical Clarifier. 

    2. Sand Trap.
    3. Pure Oil Tank
    4. Vacuum Drier. 
    5. Sludge Separator or Decanter.
    6. Sludge Tank.
      Vibrating Screen

      Decanter

      Vertical Clarifier. Pure Oil Tank. Crude Oil Tank. Sludge Separator.

      Sludge Separator

      Purifier
    7. Deoiling Tank.
    8. Sludge Pit.
    9. Condensate Tank.
    10. Vibrating Screen. Mesh 30 or 40.
  13.  EFB 
    1. Bunch Crusher. 
    2. EFB Press. Doe requirement to put roofing. Demand for solid fuel encourage more mills to install pressing and shredding. 
       
      Handling of EFB at mills required loader. Some mills put excavator to load the efb to lorry before transfer to estates as mulching.


       
       Efb Press recover max 0.2% oil from EFB. High kw requirement. Less demand for pressed EFB.

       
      Combination design of EFB Press and Shredding Machine. Moisture of shredded EFB at range 40 to 45%. High demand on shredded EFB for biomass power plants and palm oil refineries. Minimum 7 days to dry out the moisture before apply to boiler due to high moisture.  
    3. Shredded EFB
    4. Palleting Machine.
    5. Long fiber. 
      Palatalize EFB for boiler fuel exported to Japan & Korea at price RM250/mt. However, the demand is less due to lots of factors.
    6. Mulching


    7. Composting. 
       


      Nutrient contents of compost efb.
    8. EFB ratio to FFB : 23%
  14. Boiler & Power Plant
    1. Size of boiler determine by the TPH of the mills and total electricity required by all mill's sections.
    2. Ranging from 18, 27, 35, 45 mt/hr steam generating.
    3. Vickers. Mechmar. Boilermech.
    4. Water tube boiler. Biomass.
    5. Type of fuel : Mesocarp fiber. Palm kernel shell. Shreded empty bunch. Gas from Effluent treatment plant.
    6. Steam engineer. Boilerman. Engine Driver. Grade II, 1 DOSH Certificate. MSIEA. 
    7. DOSH Annual Inspection. 10 days. 
    8. Diesel Generator ranging 400, 500, 600 kw. Back up power suply during non running of steam turbine.
    9. Steam turbine to generate electricity. Ranging 1000, 1200, 1400, 2000, 2,400 kw. Nadroski. PMT.
      Water Tube Boiler



      Manual Racking for Furnace Floor without moving grate. To install Vibrating Grate or Pulsating Grate to remove clinker.

      Manual racking. Unsafe task for fireman.


      Fixed grae and moving grate

      Mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell are sources of boiler fuel.

      Steam Turbine to generate electricity for mill operation and domestic supply.


      Working Floor to feed solid fuel to boiler. Minimize the using of loader to feed the boiler fuel.

      Mesocarp fiber. Caloric value at 3000 kj



      Adding gas from Effluent Treatment Plant to boiler.

      Fuel Feeding system to boiler.
    10. Back pressure receiver. Steam supply for processing. heating.
    11. Boiler accessories. Manual racking. Pulsating grate. Vibrating grate. Soot blowing. Super heater tube. Air preheater. economizer. 
    12. Boiler water teratment. Internal treatment. Softener. Vacuum Dearator. Hot water tank. Feed water pump.

    13. Working floor. Loader. Elevator. Conveyor.  
  15. Effluent Treatment Plant


  16. Biogas System to reduce air polution. Extraction of gas for flaring or running gas turbine.


    Anaerobic Pond

    Biotube for desludging.


    Typical method of desludging. 

    Biogas at Effluent Treatment Plant

    Tanks System for ETP.


    Land Irrigation.

    Composting using sludge from mill mix with EFB.

    Aeration System.




    1. Type of ponds. Cooling Pond. Anaerobic Ponds. Aerobic Pond. Polishing Ponds.
    2. Tertiary plant. Batching System. Filtration. RO. Decanter. Belt Press. Dewatering system.
    3. Land irrigation. 
    4. Biogass. Flaring. Gas turbine.
    5. Biotube. 
    6. Desludging.
    7. PH, BOD, COD, Oil, SS. Influent parameters. 
    8. Final discharge standard parameters. Effluent. 
    9. Filter Frame Press to reduce suspend solid. 
  17. Workshop
  18. Store
  19. Water Treatment Plant

    1. Source of water. River. Catchment pond. Man made pond. Sea. 
    2. Water intake quality determine the treatment system.
    3. Alum. Soda. PPM. Dosing system.
    4. Pump. Clarifier. Sand filter. Pond and tanks. 
  20. Mass Transfer










    1. To convey the mass, conveyor, elevator, pump are used.
    2. Pumps. Multistage. Open Impeller. Semi. Closed Impeller. Centrifugal. 
  21. Storage Tank
    1. Tank Capacity 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 mt.
    2. Despacth Tank.
    3. Heating.
    4. Storage procedure.




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