Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Tiga Insan Yang Saya Kagumi Dalam TOASTMASTERS

Sejak sertai TI April 2013 hingga kini, saya telah menjadi ahli kepada 4 kelab di Sandakan dan Lahad Datu. Menjadi Charter Presiden dan juga Triple Crown pertama sesi 2014-2015. Saya amat kagumi 3 insan yang menyebabkan saya sentiasa bersemangat meneruskan perjalanan dalam Toastmasters tanpa henti. Ibarat kata Area Director Shane Ho, a running Toastmaster.

Tiga insan itu adalah Datuk Hasan Sandukong, Hj Ir Azmer dan Hjh Kasmah. Mereka adalah contoh kepada saya kenapa saya mesti teruskan usaha dalam Toastmasters. Ada ramai lagi ahli yang saya kagumi, namun itu sekadar contoh utama.

Saya amat kagum dengan Datuk Hasan Sandukong kerana beliau sudah berada di kemuncak kerjaya dan hidup beliau. Pernah berkhidmat sebagai Speaker DUN Sabah dan telah berusia, namun beliau nekad terus aktif dalam Toastmasters hingga kini. Mengulang - ulang modul CC hingga kali ke 13 dan kini masih melakukan perkara yang sama! Hadir ke mesyuarat di dua kelab, malah hadir ke banyak program kelab dalam dan luar daerah. Beliau mengajar saya erti usia bukan penghalang dalam melakukan sesuatu terutama dalam BELAJAR. Beliau sebenarnya banyak MENGAJAR saya untuk menjadi lebih hebat!

Insan kedua adalah Hj Ir Azmer Shamsuddin. Insan yang amat sibuk pernah saya temui. Aktif dalam pelbagai bidang mahupun persatuan. Beliau juga berada di tahap tertinggi kerjaya, namun tetap meluangkan masa meneruskan perjalanan dalam Toastmasters. Aktif dalam 2 kelab. Jika dikaji dari segi masa dan sibuk, beliau adalah orang paling layak untuk memberikan alasan terbabit. Namun, masa bukan alasan beliau. Komitmen dan sikap beliau amat menakjubkan. Sikap beliau yang rendah diri menyebabkan hilang rasa sombong dalam diri saya yang tidak punya apa - apa. Jika beliau boleh lakukan, kenapa pula kita yang lebih jual mahal? Adakah kita sudah lebih baik dari beliau?

Insan ketiga adalah Presiden Hjh Kasmah Mukmin. Beliau sangat unik. Beliau sangat hebat. Di usia emas, beliau sanggup menggalas tugasan sebagai presiden kelab. Bukan satu persatuan beliau ikuti, malah 6 persatuan beliau bergiat aktif. Jika usia lebih 60 tahun menjadi alasan, tidak kepada insan ini. Wajahnya sentiasa ceria dengan senyuman. Cekal melayan kareneh pelbagai ahli. Terus tekad dalam Toastmasters.

Ketiga - tiga insan di atas amat saya kagumi. Mereka adalah ikon kepada Toastmasters. Contoh insan bergelar pemimpin yang dilahirkan oleh organisasi bertaraf antarabangsa. Bukan rhetorik malah bukti nyata di depan mata. Perjalanan dan pengembaraan dalam Toastmasters akan membawa semua ahli ke perhentian kejayaan yang tidak pernah anda gambarkan. Ayuh, sertai kami hari ini!

Zulkefli Muhammad, ACS, CL
CHARTER PRESIDEN
TOASTMASTERS BANGSAWAN LAHAD DATU

Saturday, 26 September 2015

Welding

Controlling Your Fear

Triggers
1. New and uknown situations
2. Risk of failure
3. Potential for appearing foolish
4. Possibility of boring the audience

Anxiety Symptoms
1. Increase heart rate
2. Butterflies in the stomach
3. Incontrollable shakes
4. Lightheadedness
5. Dizziness

Managing Anxiety

1. EXPERIENCE
Practice
Rehearse
Deliver a speech before your Toastmasters club
Give presentations anywhere you can

2. VISUALIZATION

3. RELAXITION

CONCLUSION
It is normal to feel nervous
Your audience won't notice
Use methods to exhibit confidence

Successful Conclusions

Criteria
1. Achieve a sense of closure
2. An impact
3. 5-10% of the entire speech time

Use quotation
1. Adds authority
2. Amuses listeners
3. Dramatize your speech

Techniques
1. Tell story or anecdote
Develop quickly
Make it short
Reinforce your message

2. Call for action
Clearly explain what action the audience should take

3. Ask a rhetorical question

4. Refer to the begining remarks

5. Summarize your main points
Repetition reinforces your message

TIPS FOR SUCCESS
1. Memorize your conclusion
2. End on time
3. Refrain from adding new points

CONCLUSION

"GREAT is the art of BEGINING,
but GREATER is the art of ENDING."
(Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)

Friday, 25 September 2015

Begining your speech

Successfull Opening
1. Get the attention
2. Introduce the topic
3. Establish rapport
4. 5-10% of the entire speech time

Opening Tecniques
1. State the importance of your topic
2. Starting STATEMENT!
3. Arouse suspense @ curiosity
4. Tell a STORY @ ANECDOTE
5. Ask a RHETORICAL question
6. Begin with a QUOTATION
It can be
6.1 add authority to a speech
6.2 amuse the audience
6.3 dramatize a speech point

7. Reference the occasion
- audience common interest
8. Humor
9. Audience participation
10. Demonstration
11. A reference to a historical event

AVOID
1. Acknowledging the amount of preparation
2. Avoid being dull and boring
3. Avoid delaying mention of the topic

CONCLUSION

A dynamic begining is essential for a successfull speech!

Speech Introduction

Why it is important?

1. Smooth transition
2. Proper mindset
3. Speaker authority

General Essentials
1. Speaker's name
2. Speech topic
3. Tittle

Toastmasters Essentials
1. Speech assigment
2. Speech objectives
3. Delivery time

Draft the Introduction
1. Approach
2. Length
3. Delivery
4. Clarification

Applying Restraint
1. Don't upstage the speaker
2. Don't reveal speech details
3. Don't suprice the speaker
4. Don't praise the speaker's skills
5. Don't rely on cliches
6. Don't save the speaker's name until last

Speaker's Responsibility
1. Be available to offer speech related information.
2. Inform the introducer of any special considerations.

Lectern Etiquette
1. Speak to the audience
2. Lead the applause
3. Shake hands
4. Leave the lectern
5. Show interest

Introduction are only the begining
1. Speech's ideas
2. Point of entertainment
3. How the speech helped or englightened the audience
4. Words of thanks and appreciation

Iron Phase

Iron - carbon up to 2% -> steels
>2% -> cast iron

Eutectoid point
- 0.8% carbon
- temperature 732 deg C

Austenite
- carbon steel at high temperature.
- Face Center Cubic

Example
18-8 (18% Cr and 8% Ni) -> Stainless Steel

Ferrite
- Body Center Cubic (BCC) can hold very little carbon typically 0.0001% at room temperature (pure iron)

Cementite
- very hard
- consist of 6.7% carbon

Martensite
-

Hypereutectoid
- steels with 0.77% < carbon < 1.7% carbon (high carbon steel)

Objective of TEMPERING

1. Reduce brittleness and increase ductility

2. Remove internal stresses

3. To make sufficiently tough to resist shock and fatique

Wednesday, 23 September 2015

DOSH Inspection

2 jenis
1. Pemeriksaan Pertama
2. Pemeriksaan Ulangan
FMA 1967
STEAM BOILER & UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL
Reg 76 Opening out boiler
Reg 78 Notifiable occurances
Reg 79 Repairs
Overhaul boiler dilakukan setiap 15 bulan
Atau
SSI Special Skip Inspection
+3 bulan + 3 bulan (jika diluluskan) untuk maksima 36 bulan.
Pemberitahuan, Perakuan Kelayakan & Pemeriksaan
Kilang dan Jentera, 1970
Pemeriksaan Pertama dilakukan oleh Pemeriksa daripada JKKP
Untuk memastikan dandang termasuk
1. Boiler supports
2. Piping installations
3. Safety and other valves
4. Water columns
5. Gage cocks
6. Peralatan keselamatan memenuhi kehendak undang - undang dan kod rekabentuk.
Reg 14
Peraturan (Pemberitahuan, Perakuan Kelayakan dan Pemeriksaan)
Kilang dan Jentera, 1970
Dilakukan setiap 15 bulan
Bertujuan memastikan dandang tersebut dalam keadaan yang memuaskan dan selamat digunakan.
Pemeriksaan dilakukan secara menyeluruh.
Reg 17
Persediaan untuk pemeriksaan
1. Dandang stim termasuk economiser atau superheater, dikosongkan, disejukkan, dikeringkan dan dibersihkan dalam dan luar.
2. Semua fire bar dan main steam stop valve ditanggalkan
3. Semua tiub, header, sight glass dan fusible plug ditanggalkan.
4. Semua pili, injap ditanggalkan, dicuci dan dibersihkan.
5. Dandang stim diasingkan dari mana - mana dandang stim atau air panas mengikut cara yang ditetapkan.
6. Semua kehendak khas Pemeriksa seperti yang tertulis di dalam pemberitahu pemeriksaan ditepati.

Jenis - jenis kerosakan boiler

1. Furnace rupture
2. Scaling
3. General corrosion
4. Pitting
5. Carcking
6. Bulging
7. Blistering
8. Tube snaking

Prosedur Boiler Maintenance

Persedian sebelum maintenance
-> maklumkan tarikh pemeriksaan dan dapatkan persetujuan dari JKKP.
1. Stop boiler. Buang bahan bakar. Cooling down.
2. Buat insulation boiler.
3. Open man hole boiler.
4. Lakukan boiler pre - inspection.
5. Sekiranya ada defect - > prosedur pembaikan dilakukan.
6. Mulakan mekanikal cleaning pada surface, tube, furnace.
7. Final inspection.
8. DOSH inspection.
9. Box up.
10. Filling boiler with feed water dan HT.
11. Sekiranyan DOSH berikan arahan untuk jalankan HT -> prosedur HT dilakukan.
12. Flushing air boiler untuk buang saki baki kotoran.
13. Start up boiler.
14. Set safety valves.
15. Commissioning and monitoring.
16. Online operation.

Monday, 21 September 2015

Maturity

Pic of technical for a day

Motivation for a day

Impurities in boiler water

Impurities includes
DISSOLVED GASSES
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
SUSPENDED SOLIDS
Uncontrolled concentration of these impurities can cause corrosion problems.
1. Hardness
presence of calsium & magnesium. Normally presence in a CARBONATE @ BICARBONATE ->referred to as "carbonate hardness".
Hardness may also combined with sulfated, nitrates or chlorides which is reffered to "noncarbonated hardness"
May deposited as scale.
1.1 Calsium carbonates.
Form a tenacious scale.
Form a weak carbonic acid solution -> corroded the metals in the condensate system and contiminate the condensate with dissolved metals.
1.2 Calsium sulfates
Calsium sulfate scale
Ie gypsum
1.3 Magnesium bicarbonate
Decomposes to form Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2
A sticky sludge @ deposit as scale.
+ silica -> magnesium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid which may be removed as sludge.
1.4 Magnesium Chloride
Very soluble.
+ metal -> magnesium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.
Corrode the boiler above the water line.
2. Silica
Or silicon dioxide SiO2
Form a hard, glassy coating on the boiler surfaces.
Deposited on turbine blades or piping.
Treatment -> phosphate treatment , external treatment or continious blowdown.
3. Iron and other suspended solids
4. Dissolved gases/oxygen and CO2
5. Alkalinity/causticity
6. PH

Term in boiler water treatment

Sunday, 20 September 2015

Latent Heat

energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process.
An example is a state of matter change, meaning a phase transition, such as ice melting or water boiling.

Saturation Temperature

Saturation temperature is the temperature at which  a liquid is converted to vapour when heated.

Boiling point - addition of heat results in the transformation of the liquid into its vapor without an increase in temperature.

Temperature - Enthalphy Diagram

Cause of Furnace Explosion

1. Accumulation of  unburning fuel or flammable gases in the boiler furnace.
2. Ineffective purging of the furnace and gas passages with air will result in pockets of combustile mixture remaining in the system.
3. Poor combustion due to incorrect burner setting, worn atomizers and insufficient or excessive air.
An explosion can occur if the percentage of fuel in a fuel - air mixture (by volume) falls between lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit.
The LEL is 0.6% by volume vapor to oxygen and UEL is 4.0% by volume to vapor to oxygen.
Maximum explosion can occur at 2.0% by volume vapor to oxygen.

Causes of buldging

1. Caused by overheating of the entire thickness of the metal thereby lowering the strength of the metal, which is then deformed (buldge) by the pressure in the boiler.
2. Waterside deposits and flame impingement normally cause bulge.
3. Bulges may also be caused by creep or temperature graduents.

Causes of foaming in boiler

1. Concentrations of soluble salts, aggravated by grease, suspended solids or organic matter, create frothy bubbles or foam in the steam space of a boiler.
2. The these bubles collapse, it creates a liquid that is carried over into the steam system. Foaming degrades steam quality and in some cases can create a water slug that is discharged into the steam lines, which causes water hammer.

3 Methods to Detect Cracks

1. Dye penetrant test
2. Magnetic particle inspection
3. Ultrasonic test

Boiler Failure

Chemical Dosage Pump

Feed the required chemicals to boiler

2 types

1. Piston
2. Diapgram

Boiler Water Softener

Soften the feed water

Deaerator

Removal of oxygen from boiler feed water
2 types
1. Pressure
2. Vacuum

Boiler Feed Pump